USA and China competition of power in the 21st century and the consequences attached for the international systems
1.2 Statement of the problem.. 7
1.4 The objective of the survey. 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW… 10
2.1 Parent involvement in ECDE. 10
2.2 Parents’ Involvement in Children Education. 10
2.4 The Attachment Theory by John Bowlby. 11
2.5 Epstein theory on parental Involvement 13
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 16
3.7 Validity and Reliability. 18
3.9 Data Analysis Procedures. 19
3.10 Ethical Consideration. 19
The study will explore the hegemonic transition of the US and China through a network analysis of the consequences involved. Gross output analysis of the state power and the hegemonic transition of the superpowers has been used before as they are the traditional indicators, but they do not accurately reflect the real influence of the superpowers. Thus, the study will use the network centrally to determine the power states that have hegemony, and in case the hegemonic transition is already taking place. Through analysis of the hegemonic transition through the technique, the argument remains that the US is still maintaining the hegemony for international relations. However, there have been indicators suggesting that the economic domain for international relations is shifting and China is attaining power at the micro-level. The US still contains power in all the levels, such as the political, cultural, military, and energy sectors. The study consists of two major implications: First is the presentation of an approach for the analysis and evaluation of the transitions for international relations through matching hegemony, which is a major concept for the theory of the relation on the same note a core concept of the network science. Secondly, the survey assesses the hegemonic transition for the US and China, and it is international relation research via the use of a sustainable method known as network analysis.
Global hegemony in the 21st century between China and the US is a topic that is mostly researched for international relations due to the competition existing between them. The aim for the attainment of the global hegemony is increasing, and different studies have come up with the use of various indicators for the prediction of the final outcome. The studies use the GDP, which is common in the representation of economic power, to show if there is any possibility for the transmission of power to occur. According to Graham, GDP can be used to purchase the power of parity (PPP), which is also an indicator for comparing the power for the US and China. The GDP includes various indicators like the GNP and CINC, which are used in most of the studies for the transition analysis. However, the two indicators cannot fully be used to explain the two states for the power transition. GDP indicates the market value sum for the final goods and the services produced in a certain state. Thus, it represents the economic output and not the influence it has on other states.
The researchers have proposed new indicators which combine the net with the existing indicators. The GDP is used as a network resource, and it complements the existing indicators where the GDP and the GDP per capita are used for analyzing the power of competition for China and the US. Unfortunately, the complementary indicators indicate only the state’s influence. Thus there is a need to combine other ways to get more than the total output. As the power of a state is determined by the influence exerted to enhance the international orders for international relations. One state affects others through the formation of relationships, and the influence is considered through state interactions. Making the dominant state gain the hierarchical structure for the interrelations through the norms, institutions, and regulations for the interactions
of the state.
The network perspective will be used for the US and China hegemonic transition analysis in this work. Thus the limitations of the earlier research will be overcome based on the GDP for the total output. The critical phenomena will be structured and evaluated for influencing the state actors for their own interactions. In doing so, the network theory will be used. This is a sub-theory for the complex system theory. The complex Network system contains intrinsic features for the theoretical foundations that assist in analyzing the international relations phenomena. The intrinsic features at the macro level are holism, with hubs at the micro-level. There is the use of holism analysis for the international phenomena based on the structures, nonlinearity, and the systems for mutual relations analysis. The hubs are useful in analyzing the state actor.
From the network analysis, measures are done to influence the node importance for each level. The network perspective in hegemony perspective is: Analyzing the influence states have over the hegemonic transitions for the structured context of holism. And the application of the network perspective enhances the property to be transitioned between two states for the nonlinear term for the complex theory. The premise in this analysis allows the nodes to interact, and the research can explain the complex phenomena. The network analysis is also applicable for international relations as some of the researchers use the NATO policies.
1.1 Statement of the problem
The research aims to examine the competition power for China and the US for the 21st century and its consequences for international systems.
The goals of the research are:
The study does not include statistical data of the learners who were previously in school on their socialization and behaviors. Also, not all schools were studied, which limited the data generated from the observations.
1.6 The complex networks for the International Relations research
Analyzing of the mutual influence on the international relations there is a provision of a network analysis. Network can be defines as the linked nodes and the analysis are the methods used for mapping the relationships of the nodes. The application of the nodes to international relations one node is used in the representation of a state actor and the links are the relationships for trade and the diplomacy to other states, which act as the channel for the resources and the information for influence. The network analysis is then divided into three categories of macro, micro and the meso levels. For the macro level it is used to measure the extent of to which the state plays a major role structure for the states. The meso level there is an adjacent influential states where the states interact. Micro level measures the influence of networking for the international relations.
Each of the levels contains characteristics and measurement indicators. This is the betweenness centrality for the macro level. It indicates nodes interactions for the adjacent benefits. The weighted out-degrees at the micro level show the influence of a node. They are all used in measuring the actors’ hegemon.
1.7 Network centrality analysis via sector
China share in on the increase in the global trade as it continues to increase at a dizzying pace. In 1996 to 2018 he analysis of the data on the commodities indicate that China in 1996 did not have any significant impact on the economy. During that time there were other traditional powers such as the Germany, France, Japan and in the UK which contains the impact for the international community. In 2028 it is in contrast as China contained the same economic impact like the US and it emerged like G2 for the global economy. By 2014 to 2017 there is an indication that China has linked more states than US. Since China started to be called G2 it has continued to surpress US. Thus China has been emerging as new superpower for the economic domain since 1996 and there is the transfer of the hegemony to China from US in economic sector. However from macro and the meso levels the US is still leading. Though from the micro levels China is ahead. Consisting a greater influence on quantity and the US has bigger influence on quality for the IR.
Military and the political sectors
The arms trade data was out weighted out degree from 1996 to 2018.In 1996 China had little power over military and political influence and by 2018 China was not yet linked to other states thus it hasn’t emerged as a hegemon in military and in the political sector.Thus the US contained the leading place in those sectors for the three measures of the eigenvector, betweenness and the weighted out degree. The influence on US has been growing and in China there is no much difference.
A theoretical framework describes a structure that holds and supports theories that support the research topic. The theories described under these framework present detailed insights on the problem by explaining why the research issue exists. In this study, there are a number of ways in which the hegemony concept is applied for the international relations explanation. The conventional features together with that of neo-Gramscian will be indicated and any difference will be outlined for the theoretical framework to be clearly indicated. The scale of the hegemony scope will be indicated on how it envelops the international leadership and the ideological domination (Worth, 2015).
The US is known to be the most powerful in the supervision and ruling the international systems. However some of other different regionals actors like China have been able to succeed in the building of the subsystems which expands the influence in the future. In this era it is a reality that China is seen to order other societies both in locally as well as internationally in the sectors such as the militancy, transnational corporations also in the regional organizations (Worth, 2015).Thus various theoretical assumptions try to indicate don the behavior of the actors and the impact in the supremacy ideology and in the elucidating the missions to enhance the challenge.
Inclusion of new processes and new actors in the international relations changed the term hegemony for many years but it then resulted in the new formulated emergence for the formulated definitions. Due to the traditional mindset then it is understood better on how it is easier for a powerful state to lose their egotistical nationals interests and to integrate to other actors. Hegemony then began to be identified by the state or ideology to enhance the consequences for the merger for a disparate approach. Similarly some people argue that hegemony is not a one dominant control for a wider area but it is an institution (Clark, 2011).According to other researchers it is a preeminence for a social group of the nations over the others (Ravenhill, 2005).
The data sources will be from the economic, political, military and energy aspect for analyzing the hegemonic transition that exists between China and US. The data will be collected to enhance analysis from the state power concept whereby there is inherent of the potentiality. The data will be collected from the UN Comtrade for the trade satuistics database and it will be coded from the 1996 to 2018.
For the economic sector all commodities trade data will be used for all the states for centrality indication. The data from the other sectors such as military, political and cultural sectors will also be collected. If there are any changes contrary states they will be traced to ensure hegemonic transitions that occur in the economic sector.
The arms trade will also be used in the analysis of the military and the political influences for the US and China in the International relations (IR).Weapons exportation has an economical meaning and it has a military as well as political benefits. If a nation decides to siupply weapons to another country then they are strengthening its military position which also increases the ties between the two nations.The data will be used with the code 9306 from the UN Comtrade referring to the weapons such as the bomb and the missiles instead of the common ones like the ammunitions.
The collected data will then be converted into a link data for the network analysis for the period from 1996 to 2018 for the node and link data.
Other researchers such as Sommer and Sorrimer in 1997 argued that ethical considerations for example confidentiality, anonymity, also deception are important in carrying out research. Hence the aim of study will be stated first to the subjects that is the respondents; there will also be assurance of confidentiality of their identity.
The study aims at examining the hegemonic transition for the US to China under a network analysis. The GDP indicators for measuring the gross output are not always accurate in the reflection of the state influence in indicating the hegemonic transition for the superpowers. Thus the GDP is not the best method to analyses the state power but there is need for combining the indicators with other indicators such as the use of the network analysis to collect reliable data. The network centrality is useful for the determination of the state power and if there is any hegemonic transition already taking place. Thus the process makes use of the scrutiny for the framework interactions in the framework and the use of the structures for the provision of appropriate theoretical foundations to get the real influence for a state for the IR. Thus because the concept of the network analysis coincides to hegemon it is thus used empirical analysis for the transition between the superpowers.
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