Describe the unique characteristics of Chinese worldviews and discuss the significance or the implications of these characteristics in relation to the worldviews of other traditions such as the Jewish, the Christian or the modern scientific worldviews.
In order to provide an explanation to worldview several authors define worldview in different terms. According to Fritj of Capra, a social Paradigm is a particular vision of a community and where values, perceptions, concepts and practices are being shared among the members of that particular community. The vision of the community is the foundation upon which the community would organize itself. (Capra, p.34). According to Bowers worldview was that which brought about a sense of legitimacy and coherence to society, the norms present in society, its institutions, and legitimacy to individual experience and the moral and concepts of individuals. (Bowers, p.52). He gives three examples: namely, sin which is original, thought which is rational and which would lead to empowerment, and finally, intellectual authority to be determined on the basis of data. This way, a worldview can be considered as a pair of glasses through which we can see our experiences. While looking through it we get some issues focused, some which would become blurred, and some, which would disappear totally. But there are certain issues, which we cannot see even through these glasses, something even beyond them. It helps the individual to decide about the environment around him, and to judge what is right and wrong and thus by way of this the society is organized by the judgments made by the individuals.
By making a distinction between nature and man, between mind and matter and between subject and object, western philosophy, which had its origins from Hebrew, and Greek philosophy made a dual approach towards reality. The Christian philosophy rooted in Hebrew tradition believed in a complete separation of God from this Universe. The Chinese philosophy on the other hand believed in the unity of God and the universe. Thus while Western dualistic tendencies emphasized opposition of man with his nature, Chinese monism emphasized a unity of man with his nature. The Western division led to considering nature as an object and its study as science; whereas the study of the human subject or spirit led to logic, to epistemology, and to the study of human psychology and freedom. Western dualism considering nature as an object studied it as science while the study of human being or spirit led to psychology, logic, epistemology and human freedom. The Chinese giving emphasis on monism and harmony studied aesthetics more than logic, searching for deeper meanings and not on falsification or verification of propositions. This resulted in lesser tension in Chinese philosophy, compared to that in Western philosophy.
Explanation would require on how and why Greek and Hebraic traditions were successful even outside the region of their origin and as to why they were accepted and flourished in Europe, Great Britain and the New World. These Western societies having a totally different environment and other conditions than the places of its origin accepting and getting influenced by the Greek and Hebraic thought is also worth considering. The condition in the Western Europe was similar to the one in China, and both had agriculture as its backbone. Yet the West took Greco-Hebraic way of thinking and not the Chinese one, why? Dynamism developed from the contrasts in West, while a static worldview resulted from the harmony of the Chinese view, its respect for traditional values and customs and the search for knowledge. It is true to say there is some connection between the physical characteristics of a country and the thinking developed in that particular environment, but if one tries to demonstrate that link, the way how the thinking developed from the environment also will become clear. Taking our knowledge on the Greek, Israeli and Chinese environmental and historical conditions superficially, we cannot say these are the determining factors for their thought. Cause and effect links have to be found and demonstrated.
Environment and conditions in the Roman Empire was entirely different, yet Christianity flourished there. This is something beyond the environmental theory can explain. Chinese thought developing in later China, can be traced to the original roots and the influence of tradition. This theory of growth from original root and tradition could explain Greek philosophy in later Greece. But the reason behind other countries adopting it, losing ground for some time and then flourishing again in those countries to which it was transported is something beyond this explanation of this theory. We see both rationalism of Plato, and empiricism of his student Aristotle in Greece. They had difference of opinion on the relation of man and nature, even though the society and the geographical environment in which they grew were the same. The fact that natural environmental condition alone is not the factor that determines the way of thought. Origin and validity are different and one is not fully dependent or the other, nor can one give full explanation for the other. Were it not so, different philosophies should have developed in the present France, Germany, Great Britain and America than the one found in Greece. It is possible that the Romans accepted it and that the Greek thought in it influenced them give an explanation for it developing in these regions.
Thoughts of both of them had their influence on the western thought. Their logical consistency, coherence, comprehensiveness, and their strength in considering human experience while comparing it to other worldviews available may perhaps give a fitting explanation for the reason for their domination in the Western European countries. Domination of specific views or their continuing power cannot be explained by environmental or historical conditions by themselves. But worldviews as a whole can explain this, if they are true or false, their adequacy to experience will be more or less, and similarly more or less fruitful they will be. As is demonstrated by the history of the western thought, these views can be and in fact they are evaluated, changed, discarded or exchanged for other views. Environment and socio-cultural conditions alone cannot explain the development and power of Christianity and the Judeo-Christian traditions. Christianity, which initially was a slave religion in the Roman Empire, subsequently grew in to the Religion of the Empire, and it is far beyond the explanation of geographical or cultural reasons. The notion of transcendence held high by the Judeo-Christian traditions and its connection to ethics had, and is having, strong human appeal, logically and emotionally.
The rise of modern science and of modern economics went hand in hand requiring a degree of political freedom for their growth. The development of science requires the necessity to view nature as an object, and also a degree of human freedom, which in turn requires the view of man as a subject. Human freedom, in turn developed with the notion of human beings as moral persons with human rights. Now, arises the question whether Western and Chinese views of nature and man can be combined, and if possible, then how. It is for logic and experience to answer them. Marxism was brought into China in an effort to integrate Western and Chinese thoughts, also remains a puzzle. Attempt is made in the East to learn the science of the West, leaving out all the pitfalls of the Western development. Chinese worldview promotes an ever-evolving nature, which is ever changing, without any set beginning or end, but goes on evolving; and the Chinese analogical and correlative thinking accepts change or process having priority over rest and permanence, and there is no any ultimate agency which is responsible for the order of things in general. The approach of this philosophy sees history more as dialectical or cyclical than as compared to being linear or process. This philosophy of the Chinese has its implications on international relations, and affect understandings of relationships, time, and agreements.
Is Confucianism a form of Humanism? Explain the unique aspects of “Confucian humanism” and how this form of humanism is different from “secular humanism.” Discuss also whether Confucianism is a form of religion. Provide the reasons for your arguments for pro-or con on this issue.
A philosophy, which is concerned with human beings, their interests and achievements but not with conceptual things and issues of religion, is termed as Confucianism. The center of the universe, according to Confucianism, is man and man should live with other human beings as man cannot live alone. The eventual aspiration of human beings is individual satisfaction. Peace is the essential requirement to realize individual satisfaction. Based on love and duties, Confucius discovered five human relationships through which peace can be obtained. To develop the Great World Unity, war has to be eliminated. Confucius and his followers viewed jen (pronounced ren) or humanity as the most important virtue that we have to identify ourselves with. Confucius did not define jen, even though it is the essence of his teaching. (Huang, p.30)
To a question from one of his student on whether a certain individual or a certain kind of behavior that demonstrates jen, Confucius replied that the individual or the behavior in question fell somewhat short of being jen. Confucius tells that not many people are able to keep jen constantly in mind; he also tells that jen is very close to us. As ‘humanism’ deals with ren or humanness, ‘humanism’ is the core of Confucianism. This is specifically emphasized by Mencian wing of the Confucian tradition and elevated to metaphysical level by one of the later thinkers, Neo-Confucian schools of Song-Ming times. Confucianism appears to be an open counter part with Chinese communism as 20th-century Confucian scholars credits the word ‘humanism’ to Confucianism; and hence this new understanding must itself be “historicized” as a metacommentary. (Huang, p.32)
The distinctive characteristics of Confucian humanism can be known from the teachings of Confucius. Confucius says the person cannot bear difficulties for a longer time and he cannot enjoy the success if he is not a man of humanity (ren). The man of knowledge develops humanity and simplicity. He is free from vices if he sets his mind on humanity. Riches and credit are what every person is for as said by Confucius. But these qualities do not remain if they are got by treachery and immoral acts. Every person dislikes being deficient and meek but if these are obtained by being immoral then they must be evaded. (Huang, p.33) A person who drifts from being kind never elevates to a superior man and a person who is kind to the human race never becomes a superior individual since he suffers for a single meal. He acts accordingly at the moment of haste and difficulties. According to Confucius, a man of knowledge enjoys in water and a man of kindness enjoys in mountains. The man of intelligence delights while the man of human kind enjoys long life. As for Confucius, a learned man and a man of kindness will never hurt the human race and would rather give up his life to realize humanity. A person who can follow five things at any place is a man of humanity as per Confucius, which he explains to Tzu-Chang. The five things are sincerity, charity, honesty, meticulousness and kindness. If a person is sincere he will be respected. If he is charitable all will praise him. If he is honest, he will be relied upon. If he is careful, he will succeed and if he is kind, others will help him. (Huang, p.35)
Confucianism was different from Secular humanism. Secular humanism is the most difficult and most planned of non-Christian philosophies. The evangelical Christianity exposed secular humanism in the early 80’s. Philosophers, scientists and poets of classical Greece and Rome and the ancient Chinese Confucian society, the Carvaka movement in India and other intellectual and moral traditions form a base to these ethics. Secular humanism is focused on reason, facts and methods of inquiry as a means of finding solution to man’s problems. It was against faith and was based on human understanding, intelligence and outlook towards life. It was a philosophy, which was based on searching for political and social principles of ethical conduct. The philosophy was based on achieving the well-being and progress of human beings through reason and science. It does not provide importance to supernatural elements, which were considered outside of this universe to solve human problems; rather the history, individual experiences and reason provide a solution to human problems.
Every religion has got the following components. 1. A Creator gives rise to a) the world, b) organic life, c) the brainpower. The cosmology in origin is a 7-day cosmology though it is unaccepted by science. 2. A metaphysics clarifies a) the correlation between the Creator and the human life, b) the significance of human life, c) the emergence of moral laws. 3. There are a set of people who live their personal life, society and government according to that principle. With these explanations, Confucianism can be considered a great religion of mankind though it has no visible institution or a concretized god. Confucianism gives the cosmology, which explains the rise of the universe and its organic life. Wu-Chi leads to Tai Chi, which turns out to be Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang form 8 Kwa (Trigrams) and 64 Kwa (Hexagrams). (Taylor, p.66)
The modern basic particle physics is like the Five Walk theory in Confucianism. The Ming-Ming theology explains the nature of true almighty God, the bond between man and God and gives the significance of human life. It is a complete system and no query is left out. This principle describes the emergence of good and bad and also gives a chance for human perfectibility. Every government and family in China is a part of Confucian institution. Every Chinese lives and dies in this institution. Confucianism is the greatest creed of mankind according to some people. The social ethics and moral teachings of Confucius are unified with Taoist communism; with the Buddhist theory of after life and also to China and some other parts of Asia, which forms the peacefully matching concurrent and ecumenical religions. (Taylor, p.66)
Though Confucianism is explained as a religion it is not so in the real sense. Some say that teachings of Confucius can never be proposed as a religion. Some others say it cannot be religion as Confucius as a philosopher, moralist, statesman and educationist and not a religionist. The beliefs and preaching of Confucius are not religious philosophies but are only ethical philosophies, political and educational principle. It has no revelatory sacred writings, no priest, no guidelines on after-life and scowl on asceticism and monasticism. Confucius accepted the religious values of his days but did not write. He or his followers did not defy the beliefs of God and the practice of praying one’s prominent ancestors. The trend of worshipping one’s fore fathers was dated before Confucianism. Zhou dynasty solemnized this custom. Princely families worshipped their ancestors from the originators of their family line to the present. In theory, lesser families were allowed to worship only their last 4 generations of ancestors.
The head of the family was the high priest of the set and had the power to see that the ancestors are worshipped correctly. Ancestors have to be pacified like the spirits, as they were believed to have an influence on the natural world. In Chinese culture the custom of worshipping one’s ancestors enlightens the power of the family. Family unit was the focal point of the Chinese civilization from the earliest days. The entire power of the family was at the hands of the head of the family. The meaning of the family meant not only the living members but also the dead and the next generation to come. This made them to retain their family traditions and also a feeling of continuity. Some rudiments of other religions like Christianity or Islam is not present in Confucianism. It is mainly a moral system of one’s lifetime to which customs have been added.
Explain the “one thread” that runs through the teachings of Confucius. Quote the passages containing the idea of “one thread” from the Analects and discuss how this one thread can be an essential way to understand the confucian teachings. Discuss this teaching in relation to a similar teaching of other traditions.
There was not a methodical prospectus at his time when Confucius became the first proficient tutor for higher education. Confucius held discussions on specific subjects and also suggested his students to study certain pursuits. But these were sorted out or cut off as they are today. Confucius teachings were realistic and were intended to help people to advance their charm and behavior and prepare themselves for an official position in the government. Though Confucius wanted his students to learn about new things, he cautioned them to be careful with their words and activities. Tzu-Chang was learning to get an official salary. His master suggested him to listen much but to keep away from that which is uncertain so that only a few will blame. To see much but to keep aside that which is risky while practicing to avoid regrets. When there is a lesser chance to blame and his acts give a few chances of regrets, then he is on the right path of getting a salary. Confucius highlighted the core of one’s knowledge and not on the quantity of knowledge. (Philosophy East and West, p.18)
Once when Confucius was talking with Tzu-Kung he apparently found that his student was getting the wrong notions and asked him to elucidate it. “I suppose you look at me as a person who wants to learn and remember as many things as possible.” Tzu-Kung answered that this was what he thought and wanted to know if it was so. Confucius replied that there was only one thread that runs through all. When we study the content of Confucius teachings we hope to learn the unity lying behind them. Zengi, Confucius’s disciple proclaims that ‘one thread’ of the master’s way consists of ‘Zhong’ and ‘Shu’. This statement has lead to a lot of remarks as how these two concepts can be understood as Confucius’s views. But this golden rule remains to be the most vital rule of conduct. Tzu-Kong asked Confucius if there was a single proverb, which could be followed at all, times. Confucius said what you do not want others to do to you do not do it to them. (Huang, p.42) Though this is given in a pessimistic way, as per the golden rules this give more freedom. It tells you not to do those things, which will be like an infliction on one’s personal values and how to act with others leaving the other’s choice of conduct free. Confucius took care to describe the traits of each person and the stages of development, which is clear from the Analects. The values of humanness and devotion to one’s parents and family members, which are the basics of Confucianism, were not set as principles or fixed rules of conduct. The way human beings thought about themselves and Confucius gives others and how their activities and approach should be related. (Philosophy East and West, p.25)
There is always a common thread in the philosophy of all ancient and established religions, which are often hidden from view by myths, local histories, and the doctrines specific to the rituals of the religion. The philosophy is common and ties up all religions. This common thread in the Hindu religion is called the Brahman; for Buddhism it is the mind; for Christian and Protestant mystics, it is in the concept of Godhead; and the Mohammedan tradition of the Sufi mystics was the concept of Alhaqq, the real revelation of the Divine principle through direct intuition. All the religious masters of the Buddhist, Mohammedan, Christian and Hindu religion have written emphatically about this knowledge in the heart that comes directly and intuitively. All religions talk about the duality in man’s nature and that Divine principles alone can make him overcome his evil aspects.
At the same time, all religions say that man is besotted with worries not known to other creatures, and can free him from all these cares, and attain the ultimate enlightenment through his own effort, and that this enlightenment cannot be achieved by other creatures. The Great Power rules all worldly activities and if man takes shelter in him by taking refuge, he will be rid of all worries. This is the concept of Bhakti or devotion, and is present in all religious schools- Advaita or non-dualism, Dvaita or dualism, Visistadvaita or qualified dualism, Saiva Siddhanta, Christianity, Islam, etc. The religion that Buddha spoke about directly never spoke about any respect for Buddha, the man, yet his followers cannot think of him without devotion, or bhakti. Buddha has been deified, and many images of him created that are bigger than the images of many other deities.
In the recent times, a number of knowledgeable men or jnanins have stressed on the need to enquire into the self to seek liberation. Their followers have also started worshipping them as deities. This tendency called Bhakti is inborn in man, probably in built into his make up. This leads to the concept that the purpose of life as a man is to seek the ultimate truth or God through his own intuitive knowledge. This common link between all religions is the path to slowly lead all men to reach a higher state of consciousness. With this they can overcome the duality, the relativity, the conflicts and the senses of separation that continually disturb the carnal human mind. This path may be said by people to be the universal link to the desired union with God.
Discuss the Confucian notion of “uprightness”(chih/ji). Quote the passages containning the word “uprightness” and explain the meaing of the world in light of other religious traditions or philosophical theories to find the unique approach to idea of justice.
Confucius wanted to become an advisor or government minister, though he was well-known as a teacher. With this in mind, he went to live in the powerful neighboring state of Ch’I, a little before his fiftieth birthday. Confucius was honored as a moral teacher by the Duke of Ch’I, but was not given an important government position. Ultimately, he returned to Lu. Confucius had been asked by the ruler of Ch’I the best way to govern and he had told him “Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, the father a father and the son a son.” This moral maxim contains the ideas central to the teachings of Confucius. The teaching says that social order and stability are best achieved at a societal and at personal levels, if the concerned individuals studied and followed the proper styles of behavior. (Huang, p.49)
Confucius made the explanation of the concept of uprightness. If a person acted properly in relation to his own social role, Confucius said, the others would get a positive influence from his good example. This has been seen to be true for rulers in states, and for individuals in their daily lives. The concept of a ruler ruling by the use of his moral force has been mentioned in many religions, but is a basic tenet of the Confucian ideal of government. The proper outward acts of a person are based on the five virtues of kindness, uprightness, decorum, wisdom and faithfulness according to Confucius. He had said, “Man is born with uprightness.” In Analects, XII 22, Fan ch’ih asked about jen. Confucius replied saying that it was to love all men. When asked about knowledge, Confucius said that it was to know all men. He had said “Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked. In this way, the crooked can be made to be upright.” It was considered necessary to have friendships with the upright and the trustworthy. (Huang, p.52)
According to the teachings of Confucius, moral uprightness is rewarded with the right responses due to the selfless motives. Confucius stressed the possibility of man to become perfect in his dominant thought. He was a political philosopher who lived in the period from 551 BC to 479 BC. He expressed a belief that all men were fundamentally similar, and everybody could be educated and made perfect. Differing views on human nature were held by two of his prominent successors – Mencius and Hsun Tzu. Mencius stated that humans contained the seed of goodness, but Hsun Tzu said that the original human nature tended to be evil. In spite of their difference about the original nature, both believed that humans could become perfect, through different rituals and self-cultivation.
This belief in the innate goodness and perfectibility of man had strong influences on the way the Chinese political system developed. Confucius reiterated the responsibility of rulers to lead by moral examples. He mentioned that if they did so, the people would be won over to them, and this would lead to peace and harmony in the kingdom they ruled. The main duty of the ruler in the Confucian state was felt to be to educate and change the people. Legal regulations and coercion was not required for this purpose; the personal rule, moral examples and meditations in disputes by the emperor and his officials were expected to achieve this. Conflict resolution through mediation was emphasized by Confucian political theories.
Application of abstract rules to establish right and wrong so that a social harmony is reached was not felt to be required. A number of state institutions reflected the belief that the state was the moral guardian of the people. The civil service or merit bureaucracy where all officials were selected for their moral qualities is an example. It was opined that these qualities would enable them to not only govern, but also at the same set an example that would change the people. Since the entire concept of Confucianism was based on morality, the prospective officials had to master the classics of Confucius. The universally recognized marks of status were then the official positions and the degrees received in examinations and not the wealth or business capabilities.
Confucius stressed on the pleasure one got from learning with constant efforts and application. He stressed on the pleasures of having friends from distant places. The inner strength of a man who felt no discomposure though men did not take note of him was attributed to education. There must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure and love for men; and employment of men in proper seasons for a man to be able to rule a country with a thousand chariots according to Confucius. The attitudes of youth at home should be filial, and abroad should be respectful to elders. The youth should be earnest and truthful, with overflowing love for all, cultivating the friendship of the good. If he still has time and opportunity after all this, he should spend the balance of his time in studying. (Huang, p.59)
Faithfulness and sincerity were to be held as first principles, and no friends unequal to oneself were to be entertained, according to Confucius. People who have faults should not be afraid of discarding the faults. As long as a person’s father is alive, the person should look at the bent of his will, but after the father is dead, the son should look at the conduct of his father. The son should not depart from the way of his father for three years to be called filial. The food of completely virtuous man does not leads to the gratification of his appetite; the appliances of ease are not sought by him in his dwelling place; earnestness is the hallmark of his actions; carefulness in speech is his quality; and he stays in the company of men who have principles so that he himself may be improved. Confucius would have loved to learn of such a man. (Huang, p.66)
Chinese historic fictions normally show that their heroes ultimately fall victim to tragic injustice in their conscientiousness to serve the throne, quite contrary to the stories of justice normally triumphs that we meet in most novels. The deeds of the heroes were also constantly questioned after their death. Heroes who had done their best to repel enemy aggressions and quell civil rebellion, and while doing so suffering calumny, disgrace and death are the most loved in those novels. These are supposed to have been the best examples of the highest standards of selfless service. Virtues of benevolence, uprightness, wisdom and courage were supposed to have been their hallmarks and this was stressed by Confucianism.
Humanity”(Jen/ren) and “propriety” (li) are considered two pillars of confucian teachings. Explain the meaning of each concept and discuss the interaction between these two ideas in order to explicate the process of the Confucian self-cultivation.
With the concept of humanity as the pivot for the functioning of a human community, Confucius advanced a view of social order. Jen and Li were the Confucian version of Tao and Te. The main idea in Confucian philosophy is jen. Jen is the philosophy of person and distinctive trait of man. It is the culture of metaphysics and social attitude and also the chief asset of Confucian ethics. Without jen, there is no Confucian. There are two parts of jen.
Chung, the self-improvement occurring inner core and Shu, the all-round improvement occurring by a man achieved by helping others to make them better. The universal Golden rule of Confucian version ‘Do not unto others what you would not have done unto you’ is adopted in Jen. By returning to traditional values, we can achieve a state of orderliness and peace is the message of Confucius. The concept of jen encapsulates the traditional values namely benevolence, goodness, humanity. Confucian texts refer the idea of Jen to basic concern for all living things and ideal ethics. As humanness is not a practicable asset, it is a strange idea to Western eyes.
Though intangible, the job of the “gentleman,” ch’un tzu, was to focus on upper most ideas of conduct. The blueprint of heaven is reflected in human order is the belief of Confucius. Social animals or humans interaction can be modified are the basis of Confucian thinking. By observing social rules, manners and gathering, and by developing jen, human relationships can be properly balanced. Human concern, shared respect and politeness are encouraged by Confucian teachings. Fairness, equanimity and human concern are built into the laws of Confucian leaders. Treating others the way we want ourselves to be treated is jen according to Confucius. In other words put others interest before ours is the meaning of jen.
Li is one more main idea of Confucianism. Ideal standard of conduct, reverence, courtesy, or propriety are the many meanings of Li. Thus, Li covers unbelievably wide variety of day-to-day life and is the perfect example for social, moral and religious conduct according to Confucius. Sacrificial rites are referred to Li. The most significant rituals are the proper worship of ancestors, Heaven and nature. The human being and the person in relationship combined together in Chinese is jen. Human-heartedness or love, benevolence and goodness is the crucial asset. A healthy respect for oneself and for others is human-heartedness. Confucius’s saying Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do shows the skill to feel the needs of others. Ideal relationship between people is explained in jen.
The leaders of society should follow Li to achieve social harmony was the vision of Confucius. To recreate perfect order in oneself, one should carefully follow the rites, mediate in this music and its meaning. All norms of governing ceremonious behaviors and duties that one gets due to his social positions are referred as Li. By respecting others, Li can be practiced. Li also includes charity and humbleness. By following Li, harmony in human life is possible according to Confucius. By following Li, one can become good and righteous. Peaceful states are those, which follow Li. Problems of Confucius era can be solved by following Li. To create harmonious society, strict ritulization of life is required. To reform the government, tao, the proper order of things, has to be set up.
Jen and Li are the Confucian version of Tao and Te. The social role of a person, Li, is encompassed in Jen. One who has perfect Jen would display perfect Li. A rigid social order consisting of five basic relationships was created by Confucius based on relationship between Jen and Li. Relation between husband and wife, between emperor and masses and between father and son are some of the above relationships. To concentrate on matters of the universe and moral rules, these relationships are helpful. Mandate of Heaven is a well-known example. Authority from heaven is bestowed on emperor according to Confucius. The continuance of his mandate depends on whether he is a kind and righteous ruler. People can remove him once if he loses his respect with heaven. Confucius’s vision of moral-spiritual qualities and not social distinctions maintaining equality in society is explained by the mandate of heaven. Justice and harmony will rule the empire if the principles of Li and Jen are followed by all men. By learning chaos can be cured. To assure morality or righteous behavior, Confucianism suggests self-cultivation and education as the ways. Great harmony was the ultimate aim of Confucianism.
Bowers, C.A. The Cultural Dimensions of Educational Computing – Understanding the Non-Neutrality of Technology, Teachers College Press. 1988.p.52
Capra, Fritjof. The Web of Life – A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems, Anchor Books. 1996, p.34
Taylor, Rodney L.: The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986. p.66
Reweaving the ‘One Thread’ of the Analects, Philosophy East and West 40:1 (January 1990), pp. 17-33.
Huang. Tr, Chichung. The Analects of Confucius. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, p.26
Tu, Wei-ming: Humanity and Self-Cultivation: Essays in Confucian Thought Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1979. p.21
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We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more