Nike Company Profile
Analyzing the last five years of financial performance of Nike Corporation through extensive financial analysis, industry trend analysis, and completing a SWOT analysis of their current global strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats forms the foundation of this report. The evaluation and recommendations are based on extensive use of financial ratios and analytical tools.
Company and Industry Description
Nike Corporation SWOT Analysis
Five Year Income Statement, Balance Sheet and Geographic Analysis
Five Year Financial Ratio Analysis
Cross-Industry Financial Analysis
Evaluation and Analysis
Company & Industry Description
Identification of the publicly traded company
Nike is the global leader in the development, design, and production of athletic footwear and athletic apparel, and is considered one of the founders of the athletic footwear industry. The company is primarily engaged in the design, development, and worldwide marketing of footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessory products worldwide, operating in 120 nations currently. While Nike designs their footwear, apparel, and athletic equipment for specific athletic use, a large percentage of its products are worn for casual or leisure purposes. Nike also designs running, basketball, children’s, cross-training and women’s footwear shoes, and markets shoes designed for outdoor activities, including tennis, golf, soccer, basketball, bicycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, aquatic activities, hiking, and other athletic and recreational uses.
In addition to a significant in-house branding effort, the company also operations through wholly-owned subsidiaries including Cole Haan Holdings, Bauer Nike Hockey, Hurley International, and Coverse. Nike sells its line of dress and casual footwear, apparel, and accessories for men and women under the brand names Cole Haan, g Series, and Brangano, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Cole Haan Holdings. The company’s wholly owned subsidiary, Bauer Nike
Hockey, manufactures and distributes ice skates, skate blades, in-line roller skates, protective gear, hockey sticks and jerseys, licensed apparel, and accessories under the Bauer and Nike brand names. Hurley International designs and distributes a line of action sports apparel for surfing, skateboarding, snowboarding, and youth lifestyle apparel and footwear under the Hurley brand name. Coverse designs and distributes athletic and casual footwear, apparel, and accessories under the Coverse, Chuck Taylor, All Star, One Star, and Jack Purcell brand names.
In terms of manufacturing and distribution, the company has opted to outsource the production of the majority of their footwear and apparel products to independent contractors outside the U.S., while the athletic equipment products are produced both in the U.S. And in foreign factories. Nike sees distribution as critical to their business and both own and operates domestic distribution centers for footwear located in Wilsonville, Oregon; Memphis, Tennessee; and Greenland, New Hampshire. The company offers its products to retail accounts and through a mix of independent distributors, licensees and subsidiaries in the 120 countries it operates in, in addition to 22 offices in the U.S. that are used for sales and support (ValueEngine 2006).
Products, Markets, and Industry Trends
Defining the most relevant trends impacting Nike is best organized by grouping these trends into strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, or threats. This is typically referred to as a SWOT analysis and has been completed for Nike. The following is an analysis of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Strong instantly recognizable market position and brand name
Nike holds the leadership position in the global footwear and apparel market from a sales and branding standpoint. As the worlds’ number one shoemaker and as of the close of 2005 the company holds 40% market share in the footwear industry. The company is also the world’s largest manufacturer of athletic apparel. Supporting this leading market share of shoes and athletic goods is a vast network of 28,000 retail accounts in the U.S., and in more than 120 countries outside the U.S. Best known is the company’s extensive and coveted celebrity brand endorsements and the Nike swoosh sign is one of the most widely recognized company logos worldwide.
Robust and consistent financial performance
Nike has been reporting strong financial growth since 2000 the company’s growth has been consistently strong, as the detailed tables included in this report will illustrate.
Hard-to-replicate manufacturing strategy
Nike has a difficult-to-replicate manufacturing strategy, relying on production partners and outsourcers throughout several of the world’s developing nations. Nike’s footwear products are primarily produced outside the U.S., with subcontractors in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand, manufacturing the majority of its products. The company also manufactures its products in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, for sale in those countries through a variety of manufacturing operations located in those specific regions. Nike also produces apparel products are produced in Bangladesh, China, Greece, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. By establishing and manufacturing its products in developing countries, Nike is accomplishing significant cost savings through low wages and low cost of production in these areas. Nike has long held that their supply chain is their greatest competitive advantage in that there is no single vendor they purchase greater than 7% of their total materials. Nike operates its six domestic distribution centers for footwear in the U.S., and ships its apparel and equipment products from the six distribution centers. The company’s strong manufacturing and distribution operations enable Nike to maintain low operating costs.
Globally Diversified Business Operations
Nike has a globally strong product line-up and has diversified its business to include sports apparel and equipment for nearly ten years of its many years of existence Nike continues to aggressively pursue reducing its once sizeable dependence on footwear, to include equipment, and apparel. The company also offers specialized sports gear for a number of sports including golf, hockey, skateboarding, and cycling. Nike also operates through four subsidiaries: Cole Haan Holdings (offers dress and casual footwear, apparel, and accessories for men and women), Bauer Nike Hockey (manufactures and distributes ice skates, skate blades, and a diversified business structure enables Nike to spread its risk across its various divisions and cater to the expanse of the sporting goods industry.
Claims of Human Rights Abuses and Issues
Nike continues to face significant criticism and bad publicity as a result of human right issues and claims of human rights abuses. Nike has been criticized for mistreatment of its employees at its manufacturing units in Indonesia, Pakistan, Cambodia and Mexico. There have been several documentaries and CNN segments on the human rights abuses of Nike in its manufacturing processes. The company has worked very hard to overcome the claims of human rights violations, specifically of unfair wage practices.
Culturally precarious advertisement campaigns
Nike has been accused on several occasions of being insensitive to the cultural norms and mores of the countries they manufacture in, sell to, and serve. An example of this is from an advertising campaign launched in December 2004. China ended up banning the company’s television advertisement, showing LeBron James battling a cartoon kung fu master, as an insult to its national dignity. In November 2004, a series of Nike advertisements in Singapore designed to resemble graffiti drew censure and anger in that nation, a bastion of civic order. In another part of the world, Nike tennis advertisements were pulled in Australia, as they were termed insensitive by child protection groups. The company had to pull out several advertisements during 2000, including those charged with offending people with spinal cord injuries. The company’s lack of sensitivity in its advertising campaigns can negatively impact the efficacy of its marketing expenses. Chinese competitors want to replicate this strategy, where Nike is spending $37M in their country in 2006, Wall Street Journal (2006).
Positive outlook for the sports footwear and apparel market
The demand for sporting goods is estimated to grow through 2006 according to the latest forecasts from the National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA), retail sales of sporting goods in the U.S., which reached $48.9 billion in 2004, is expected to grow to $53 billion to 2006.
Globally Growing Popularity of Branded Products
Nike has successfully penetrated and grown its global market share in the active sportswear and athletic footwear sectors.
According to the National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA) more than 75% of the active sportswear market is dominated by branded items and almost 80% of athletic footwear is sold under brand names.
Growing popularity of customized and build-to-order products
Nike is finding in customization and build-to-order products the strength to counter the mass merchandisers including Wal-Mart’s pricing pressure on them for new product introductions. Customizing products is a growing trend in the U.S. market, which enable companies to tailor and customize their products to the exact needs and requirements of lucrative young shoppers by giving them the power to personalize their products.
During March 2005, Nike introduced the ‘Just do-it-yourself’ campaign which was revolutionary at the time. As part of the campaign, the company re-launched its Nikeid.com website, where customers design their own shoes, choosing everything from the color of the famous Nike swoosh to personalizing the tongue (of the shoe) with a word or phrase. The company’s ability to take advantage of this growing trend will enable Nike to increase its revenues from customers and demand for its products. This strategy of customization increases sales and profits per pair of shoes produced.
Successful Acquisitions and Partnerships
Nike acquired Official Starter Properties and Official Starter in later 2004. These two entities were the sole owners and licensors of the Starter, Team Starter and Asphalt brand names as well as master licensee of the Shaq and Dunkman brands (a line of athletic apparel, footwear and accessory products for the value retail channel). These two acquisitions and more like them are providing Nike with a broadened product strategy and the ability to better compete globally.
Launch of new technology marketing strategies and products by competitors
Nike faces significant competition from its two closest competitors, Adidas and Reebok, which recently released technologically superior footwear products. In Adidas continues to be the more active of the competitors, releasing Adidas 1, which is innovative in that it re-adjusts the shoe to the customer’s foot depending on their size, pace, terrain and fatigue level. The Adidas 1 uses a sensor, a microprocessor and a motorized cable system to automatically adjust the shoes cushioning. Reebok’s Pump shoe concept uses a self-regulating and inflating technology and provides an automatic custom forms to the consumers foot. Nike has just recently become competitively matched to these companies with their Apple iPod integration, where iPod users can get a measurement of how far they have run, According to Knight-Ridder (2006).
Rapid changes in customer preferences
Nike and all sports footwear and apparel companies are continually challenged with responding to customer preferences and the rapidly changing socioeconomic conditions prevailing in the economy.
Nike has made significant investments in their Voice of the Customer Programs to stay on top of these trends and anticipate them.
Growing Threat from low cost Chinese footwear products
The increasingly growing strength of Chinese footwear products are now flooding the European Union (EU) countries with Nike-like products and knock-offs, Citigroup (2006).
Rising and often unpredictable raw material prices
Nike’s supply chain and its procurement operations focus on getting the best possible costs for raw materials including synthetic rubber, plastic compounds, leather, and metal hardware. As a result of rising oil prices, the price of synthetic rubber and plastic-based products Nike uses is continually increasing due to oil being $75 a barrel. The high dependence on oil-based products is a major threat for Nike.
Analysis of Findings
Five-Year Balance Sheet Comparison
Nike Corporation Balance Sheet Comparison
Cash & equivalents
Accounts receivable, gross
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Accounts receivable, net
Deferred income taxes
Prepaid expenses & other current assets
Total current assets
Machinery & equipment
Construction in process
Gross property, plant & equipment
Less: accumulated depreciation
Property, plant & equipment, net
Identifiable intangible assets, net
Identifiable intangible assets & goodwill
Deferred income taxes & other assets
Current portion of long-term debt
Accrued compensation & benefits
Accrued fair value of derivatives
Accrued endorser compensation
Accrued dividends payable
Accrued advertising & marketing
Other accrued expenses
Income taxes payable
Total current liabilities
Corporate bond payable
Japanese yen note
Other long-term debt
Total long-term debt
Less current maturities
Deferred income taxes & other liabilities
Redeemable preferred stock
Class A convertible common stock
Class B common stock
Capital in excess of stated value
Unearned stock compensation
Cumul translation adjustment & other income
Net deferred gain (loss) on hedge derivatives
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
Total shareholders’ equity
Five Year Income Statement Analysis
Nike Corporation Annual Income Statement Comparison
As Reported Annual Income Statement
Cost of sales
Selling & administrative expense
Interest expense, net
Other income (expense), net
Total costs & expenses
Income before income taxes – United States
Income before income taxes – Foreign
Income (loss) before income taxes
Total current provision for income taxes
Total deferred prov (benef) for income taxes
Income (loss) before accounting changes
Net income (loss)
Five Year Geographic Revenue Analysis
Nike Corporation Geographic Analysis
Five Year Cash Flow Analysis
Nike Corporation Cash Flow Analysis
As Reported Annual Cash Flow
Net income (loss)
Cumulative effect of accounting change
Deferred income taxes
Amort & oth income charges not affecting cash
Income tax benef fr exercise of stock options
Prepaids & other current assets
Accounts pay, accruals & income tax pay
Net cash flows from operating activities
Purchase of short-term investments
Maturities of short-term investments
Additions to property, plant & equipment
Disposals of property, plant & equipment
Decrease (increase) in other assets
Increase (decrease) in other liabilities
Acquisition of subs-net assets acquired
Net cash flows from investing activities
Proceeds from long-term debt issuance
Reductions in lg-tm debt incl current portion
Increase (decrease) in notes payable
Proc fr exercise of stk opts & other stk iss
Repurchase of stock
Dividends-common & preferred
Net cash flows from financing activities
Effect of exchange rate changes
Net increase (decrease) in cash & equivalents
Cash & equivalents, beginning of year
Cash & equivalents, end of year
Interest expense paid, net
Income taxes paid
Five-year Financial Ratio Analysis
Nike Corporation Financial Ratio Analysis
Return on Equity (%)
Return on Assets (%)
Return on Investment
EBITDA of Revenue (%)
Operating Margin (%)
Net Profit Margin (%)
Effective Tax Rate (%)
Working Capital/Total Assets
Total Debt to Equity
Long-Term Debt to Assets
Cross-Industry Financial Analysis
Current Ratio – latest Debt/Total Assets – latest Effective Tax Rate – latest Gross Margin – latest Pre-tax Margin – latest Profit Margin – latest Quick Ratio – latest Return on Assets (ROA) – latest Return on Equity (ROE) – latest Total Liabilities/Equity – latest Company Name Peer Avg: 2.32 Peer Avg: 0.12 Peer Avg: 16.96 Peer Avg: 35.06 Peer Avg: 8.11 Peer Avg: 5.97 Peer Avg: 1.21 Peer Avg: 3.31 Peer Avg: 14.50 Peer Avg: 0.28 NIKE, Inc. 3.18 0.08-34.85-44.51-13.54 8.82 2.1-13.78-21.47 0.35 Achilles Corp. 1.4-0.05-22.97 2.22 1.34 0.08 1.53 3.38 0.93 Converse Inc. (DE) 0.38 0.49 -13.31 — 0.17 -28.24-19.58 -1.52 Fujikura Rubber Ltd. (Japan) 2.29 0-23.43 6.95 4.02 0.21 4.5-7.08 0.41 Li Ning Company Ltd. 3.04-3.06-46.51-10.24 7.1-1.68 9.01-13.21 0.45 Pou Chen Corp 1.57 0.26-23.98-19.14-19.14 0.67-17.35-39.13 0.66 Reebok International, Ltd. 2.3-0.15-25.77-39.57 7.02 5.08 1.52 7.88-15.77 0.66 Sao Paulo Alpargatas S.A. 3.14 0.07 1.59-39.61-15.21-12.18 1.3-14.52-25.22 0.35 Saucony Inc. 3.52 0-40.75-41.08-10.65 6.25 3.26-10.82-15.17 0.35 Vans, Inc. 3.08 0.01-12.08-45.35 -9.89 -9.09 1.6 -12.36 -16.31 0.28 * all results are stated in U.S. Dollars Peer Grouping by: NAIC Peer Scope: worldwide
Evaluation and Analysis
In evaluating Nike, their challenges in EMEA (Europe) and their corresponding pricing strategies and inventory levels there, and consistency of growing gross contribution margin, both in absolute and percentage terms, in addition to the continual growth of Return on Assets relative to industry participants all point to Nike’s ability to compete effectively using low-cost manufacturing and distributed supply chains globally. Despite the slowness in Europe however, Nike continues to find significant growth globally.
The financial analysis in this report also shows Nike, over the last five years, has accomplished significant Sales, General & Administration (SGA) expense controls, and as a result is well-poised to penetrate China and challenge its primary competitors in their host country. The slight rise in inventories is cause for concern, yet the company’s strength in selling through its many outlets and distribution agreements will most likely alleviate any over-hang of these inventory positions.
Nike also is finding their branded product sales are up 12% over previous years and the focus on creating brands such as Jordan, which has lead revenue generation in 2005 and throughout the beginning of 2006, are what is also contributing to the highest growth regions of the world. These include Russia, Turkey, and South Africa, according to Prudential (2006). China’s sales are also up 50% over the previous year, and the recent new product introductions and re-aligning of supply chains to deliver even greater competitive pricing and delivery in China is a central focus of the company in 2006. The challenges to growth however continue to be managing debt, keeping SG&A in its flat-lined growth rate, and aggressively growing through branded products and re-aligning of manufacturing and supply chains for emerging geographies.
Nike is well positioned to attain double-digit growth in revenues through 2007. The biggest challenges for the company center on localization strategies in countries which to this point have had sluggish sales. The financial discipline the company illustrates in its U.S. operations highlights the many efforts the company is making to keep SG&A expenses in line with their own stated forecasts of this key financial performance metric. The conclusion is that the growth of Nike relative to competitors needs to come from better internal execution than in massive price cuts and radical marketing.
Recommendations for Nike are as follows:
Continue to align production and supply chains in regions throughout the world with the specific market demands of each developing nation. This certainly applies to market penetration strategies in China and Russia, and needs to also apply to the South African markets as well.
Get designers from Europe and China developing specific shoes for these markets, and define product introductions to align with the specific athletic events of each nation. Soccer shoes in Russia, France, and Italy around the World Cup would be an example of this type of accelerated product development.
Develop athletic equipment selling channels throughout China.
Citigroup (2006) – Nike Corporation Investment Profile. June 28, 2006. Citigroup Investment Research.
Knight Ridder Tribune News (2006) – Going to wireless workouts. Stacey Hirsch. Washington, DC July 9, 2006
Prudential (2006) – Footwear Industry Analysis. March 14, 2006. Dunn & Wong. Prudential Equity Research. New York, NY
ValueEngine (2006)- Nike Corporation Research Report. June 1, 2006. ValueEngine Research Services.
Wall Street Journal (2006) – A Big Shot In China: To fight Nike a Bejing sneaker giant aims to turn NBA journeyman Damon Jones into a star. Kang & Fowler, Wall Street Journal. June 24, 2006.
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