Poor Mental Well-being and the Impact


Mental Health in Education

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Poor Mental Well-being and the Impact on Outcomes for Secondary-Age Children



School-aged children who transfer to a school with a higher socioeconomic status intake than their secondary school may find themselves in a lower socioeconomic place within their school’s socioeconomic hierarchy, putting their well-being at risk. Young people’s happiness is also lowest when they have low socioeconomic status within their school, for example, among disadvantaged children attending more affluent schools. This dissertation looks into Poor Mental Well-being and the Impact on Outcomes for Secondary-Age Children and evaluating the background information and the literature review in this presentation. This dissertation is based on the research question What constitutes poor mental health in secondary school students, and what are the consequences for their academic development? This dissertation highlights definitions and statements on the importance and impact of secondary-age children conducting a literature search for relevant articles based on defined criteria. Observations are made, and conclusions derived acknowledging some of the strengths and limitations of the study.













Table of contents








Poor Mental Well-being and the Impact on Outcomes for Secondary-Age Children


Students’ energy levels, attention, dependability, mental ability, and optimism can all be affected by mental health issues, resulting in poor results. According to research, depression is linked to lower grade point averages, and co-occurring depression and anxiety may exacerbate this connection. Companies minimize job-related injuries, sick days, and employee turnover when depression is appropriately handled, according to studies, and increase the number of hours worked and employee productivity. School-aged children in good health do better in school than those who are not (Ferrie, Miller & Hunter 2020). Poor health can lead to increased chances of failing in school, poor concentration, grade retention, and dropout.

1.1. Background information

When one’s socioeconomic status rises, various health measures such as disability-free years, self-rated health, subjective wellbeing, and life expectancy improve. This socioeconomic patterning occurs during childhood and adolescence before broadening throughout a person’s life. Lower mental health in adolescence is associated with psychosocial problems that persist into adulthood, making it a significant time for mental wellbeing. Ferrie et al. (2020) outline that mental health and mental wellbeing are mostly considered separate constructs; wellbeing is usually framed in more favourable terms and focuses on holistic dimensions of age childrens satisfaction with their lives; mental health concepts concentrate on the existence or absence of disease symptoms.

1.2.Positively framed indicators

Positively framed indicators of happiness, on the other hand, are just as predictive of outcomes like depression as symptom-focused measures. There is evidence worldwide that youth health disparities have recently widened in tandem with rising global economic disparity (Panayiotou et al., 2020). The mental health and wellbeing of young people have recently been characterized as crisis-level. The stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant obstacle to finding treatment, and it has been shown to exacerbate youth mental health. Panayiotou et al. (2020) acknowledge that youth face negative stigma-related consequences due to their desire to maintain their social identity and social capital. The Modified Labeling Theory fails to account for the stigmatization that young people face. It’s time for a unified approach to assessing the impact of mental illness stigma on youth. It is essential to develop universal guidelines for combining quantitative and qualitative research.

All educators must be mindful of mental health issues because they are also the first line of protection for their students. Education practitioners understand the effect of a student’s mental health on learning and success. They recognize that there is more than can be done to assist students with mental health issues. Teachers and administrators will collaborate to raise awareness for their students before mental health education becomes a necessary part of all schools. According to Panayiotou et al. (2020), the philosophy of self-care and accountability for one’s own mental wellbeing and wellness, with a focus on the idea that mental health is an integral part of health, as well as the concept of recovery from mental illness, are essential elements to highlight.

1.3.Teachers and students

Teachers and students should be taught how to identify the signs of emerging mental health issues, and resources should be given for learning about and managing mental health crises, such as the possibility of suicide or self-harm. Also, instruction should cover the connection between mental illness, drug abuse, and other negative coping behaviours and the adverse effects of stigma and cultural attitudes toward mental illness. This dissertation attempts to clarify the factors that influence mental health in the school setting and the importance of mental health issues for students’ school progress.

This dissertation reviews examples of observational results in common mental health problems among school-going children on diseases such as hyperkinetic disorder, particular developmental disorders of academic abilities, and depression. Trends in these diseases demonstrate the relationship between school-related factors and mental health problems. Also, the researchers will discuss diagnostic diagnosis, prevention, and intervention options in the school environment. The researcher found the analysis on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and controlled trials. For the years 20182021, the study searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Depression, dyslexia, dyscalculia, a disorder of math skills, hyperkinetic disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, school-related causes, prevention, support, and care, and children and adolescents were among the specialties covered by the search words.


Since teenagers spend most of their time at school, it’s only natural that mental health knowledge and education be integrated into the curriculum. Students will get the support they need if the study inspires them with information and promote dialogue. A mental health disorder affects 1020 percent of children and adolescents (Wokoma & Udochukwu 2020). Attention deficits, cognitive disturbances, a lack of motivation, and a pessimistic mood all hurt academic development. It’s not always clear how education influences children’s behavioural growth or what prevention measures and strategies should be implemented at school. Schools are widely regarded as a medium for delivering strategies to eliminate youth inequality while being one of the intertwined social effects on young people’s health and growth.

This is owing to their ability to reach whole communities, but although some school-based interventions decrease disparity, others exacerbate it (Mishara & Dufour 2020). A large body of research shows that social differences in educational achievement exist. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and those who enter schools with more disadvantaged socioeconomic compositions have worse academic outcomes. Schools are widely regarded as a medium for delivering strategies to eliminate youth inequality while being one of the intertwined social effects on young people’s health and growth.

This is due to their potential to enter whole communities; moreover, although some school-based programs reduce disparities, others worsen them. A significant body of research demonstrates social inequalities in educational performance. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and those who attend schools with more deprived socioeconomic compositions have worse academic outcomes. Inequalities in education have been explained by theorists such as Basil Bernstein by highlighting various processes by which schools act to reproduce or even legitimize inequalities in broader society, often representing a more normal extension of the middle-class family community.

1.4.1. Prevention and intervention programs

Prevention and intervention programs have been carried out in schools around the world, at various levels, for the whole school, classes, or risk groups, to improve children and adolescents’ mental health in general and in the school setting in particular, under the title Mental Health Program (Stankovska et al., 2018). Stankowski et al., 2018) acknowledges that despite their growing prominence, global school concepts involve improvements in school life, such as the atmosphere/climate, architectural elements, extracurricular support programs, and acceptance in the city or municipality, have had little or no effect.

1.4.2. Significance of study

Uncertain and unfocused priorities, a lack of consistent implementation instructions, a lack of instruction manuals, inadequate education and preparation of those in positions of responsibility for implementing the program, and a lack of implementation and quality controls are all possible factors. In terms of improving mental health, mitigating psychological pressures/stress, reducing bullying/mobbing, and encouraging prosocial activity, the impact sizes of school-based prevention and intervention services are low to moderate. In bullying, universal interventions to minimize abuse and promote dispute resolution had a tiny impact scale.

This is especially true when the prevention and intervention approach focuses on students at a higher risk of mental health issues like anxiety or depression or on groups of students who engage in aggressive actions. Only a consistent implementation of programs with quality assurance, competent advanced and extended training for those implementing the agenda, and an enhancement of a school’s environment or community can result in long-term success in school prevention and intervention.

1.4.3. Exam pressures

Exam pressures, which can cause overwhelming pressure, and the number of exams that can significantly impact students’ mental wellbeing are only two factors that lead to poor mental health in young people. According to Stankovska et al. (2018), most students are also concerned that a mediocre grade would jeopardize their career prospects. Young people are also being affected by the new technological environment, as they now spend much more time indoors online than outdoors. Online games have taken the place of a park football game. Furthermore, young people are exposed to various threats online, including disturbing content and cyberbullying, all of which can hurt their mental health. Social networking networks are constantly changing and gaining popularity.

Teens equate themselves and their lives to those of their peers on social media sites like Instagram, leading to feelings of inadequacy (Rehmani, Khan, & Fatima 2018). Reduced communication skills and human contact with friends are also consequences of social media use. LGBTQ students also find it difficult to tell their friends and family about their sexual orientation. As they strive to stay true to themselves, they can experience depression, alienation, and concern. Young people are being placed under much pressure. In addition to the stress of tests, students also have additional obligations that add to their stress and anxiety.

This also results in fatigue, putting these children at risk for a variety of mental health issues. COVID-19 is a virus that infects people. The pandemic has altered the lives of young people, affecting school and everyday routines. A rise in child mental health issues, ranging from anxiety to agoraphobia and PTSD, has been attributed to concerns about their wellbeing, inability to see friends and family, and concerns about their futures. To deal with the crisis, the school Health Nursing Team consists of school health nurses and school health assistants who have prior experience working with children and young people and delivering programs tailored to their needs.

1.5.Proposed Research Question

What constitutes poor mental health in secondary school students, and what are the consequences for their academic development?

1.6.Aims of the study

This dissertation aims to respond to what constitutes poor mental health in secondary school students, and what are the consequences for their academic development? According to a study published in Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology, poor Mental Wellbeing and the Effect on Outcomes for School going children, the impact is linked to the belief that a mentally challenged person’s brain does not work typically but can recover (Newton et al., 2017). Magnetic stimulation over the brain and targeted muscle activity were used to test the brain’s responsiveness. Scientists have discovered that the brain has a remarkable capacity to alter and recover in response to mental experiences. This phenomenon, known as neuroplasticity, is widely regarded as one of the most significant advances in modern science in understanding the brain.

Dissertation structure

The dissertation attempts to respond to the research question in five chapters with introductions and background highlighting existing areas of concern on the subject. The literature review looks into existing research. The later section addresses the methodology of this study, and the results obtained from the process. The dissertation analyzes the information and develops a conclusion and recommendations. The limitations of the study are also acknowledging in the conclusion of this dissertation.


Since March 13, 2020, several schools have been closed, and it is unclear when classes will resume. Adolescence is a crucial stage in one’s social growth. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation and school closures may exacerbate current mental health problems in adolescents and increase potential mental health problems. For several students, the lack of routine, social alienation, and feelings of depression raise the risk of mental illness. Adolescents are also at risk of developing mental health issues due to a rise in domestic violence and bullying during this pandemic. For vulnerable teenagers, schools have traditionally provided a social support network as well as mental health services. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, schools were closed, removing the protective layer of school-based mental health care.

2.1. Impact of social order disruptions

The closure of community agencies exacerbates the problem. The COVID-19 quarantine, on the other hand, has provided time for family bonding through traditional board games and other activities. However, some students may need additional assistance to maintain their health. Rehmani, Khan, & Fatima (2018) outline that early detection and referral to secondary care and mental health services can be facilitated by virtual meetings with guidance counsellors from colleges. Families can struggle to afford technology for high school students who could benefit from school-based therapy assistance for mental health issues in a pandemic climate of furloughs and job cuts.

2.2. Underlying theories

Adolescents accessing telemental health care by school and community providers should have equal access to technology.

In the face of the pandemic, anxiety, fear of contracting the virus, sleep disorders, and concerns about the future are some of the prevalent mental health issues affecting teenagers. During a pandemic, there has been an increase in the prevalence of mental health issues in youth, including stress-related illnesses, depression, anxiety, and drug abuse. During the COVID-19 pandemic, quarantine, trauma, and grief all raise the risk of mental illness.

Due to a lack of adequate support services, adolescents must fend for themselves in an underfunded and stigmatized environment. Children’s safeguarding agencies and family and community resources to build better connections with children and teenagers will help reduce risks.

2.2.1. National Alliance on Mental Illness

Being a student is challenging enough, but juggling schoolwork and other commitments when dealing with mental illness can be even more difficult. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), one out of every five teenagers aged 13 to 18 has a mental health problem, and 75 percent of people with mental illnesses experience them before the age of 24. Mental health issues can be crippling and frightening, prompting some students to withdraw rather than seek support. This guide contains several tools for students, students, and educators searching for knowledge to help them live their best lives.

When students first recognize a mental health problem in themselves, they are always afraid of not finding out where it came from. Students who were previously anxious during public speaking but now feel intense fear naturally wonder what went wrong. Changes in mental health can be caused by various factors, including significant life changes, politics, family, academic pressure, relationship problems, and money. Exercise, sleep, and diet, according to NAMI, will make students feel better or worse, depending on how well they care about themselves. Children who do not receive counselling, medication, or other supportive resources for managing anxiety are more likely to have long-term problems. Anxiety disorders have been on the rise in K12 students since the 1950s, and studies indicate that the trend will continue in the coming years.

2.2.2. Anxiety

Anxiety can be a natural part of growing up if it comes in waves, but students who have persistent symptoms are more likely to have an anxiety disorder that can be treated. Academic achievement is hampered more by stress and anxiety than by any other non-academic factor. Both can cause racing thoughts, poor judgment, and memory loss, in addition to impairing focus. Depression, anxiety, and an inability to relax can result on the emotional spectrum, leading to procrastination or, for some students, self-medication with drugs and alcohol. Anxiety and stress can manifest themselves physically, causing nausea, a racing heart, dizziness, and chest pains in students.

To date, no one knows which school-related factors raise the risk of having mental health disorders, and the factors are protective and help children and adolescents grow up psychologically stable in human medicine (Mitchell et al., 2019). The central issue is how medicine and pedagogy should collaborate more closely to reduce the risk of mental illness in children and adolescents and care for and treat mentally ill children and adolescents holistically. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, using prevention approaches in schools to minimize the risk of developing or recurrence of mental illness is an interdisciplinary task that cannot be met solely by pedagogical methods.

2.2.3. Poor mental wellbeing

Mental illness has a stigma attached to it. Mental illness has long been stigmatized in the culture due to unfortunate historical and cultural factors. Bias, mistrust, stereotyping, fear, humiliation, frustration, and avoidance are all symptoms of this stigma. In most cases, addressing psychosocial and mental health issues in schools is not a high priority unless a high-profile incident happens, such as a campus shooting, a student suicide, or a spike in bullying. Furthermore, efforts to address school-based mental health programs appear haphazard, piecemeal, and deeply marginalized.

Suicide is the third leading cause of death in children aged 1014 and the second leading cause of death in children aged 1519. Approximately one out of every five high school students has considered suicide, and 2 to 6% of children attempt suicide (Landolt et al., 2017). Suicide carries a high level of stigma, which is why schools must collaborate with students, children, school administrators, and principals to address teen suicide in a thoughtful and meaningful manner.

2.2.4. Secondary-Age Children

Secondary education is the second stage of formal education, usually starting around 11 to 13 and finishing approximately 15 to 18. The distinction between elementary and secondary education has steadily faded, not just in terms of curricula but also in organization. Primary, secondary, and post-secondary education are available. Higher education in most systems refers to the education received after the 10+2 level, consisting of ten years of secondary and secondary education followed by two years of higher secondary education. Transitioning to high school can be an emotional and challenging time.

2.2.5. Impact on Outcomes for Secondary-Age Children

Although depression has the potential to affect a person’s psychological wellbeing, it also has the potential to influence physical brain structures. Inflammation and oxygen deprivation are among the physical improvements, as is absolute shrinkage. In short, depression can affect your nervous system’s central control center. The School Health Nursing Team and the school itself will provide guidance and advice to students. The School Health Nurse operates a confidential drop-in in most high schools. These sessions can be beneficial for getting advice and guidance on various topics, such as mental wellbeing, healthy relationships, and healthy lifestyles.

2.2.6. Literature gaps

In the scientific literature, there is a well-known inverse association between mental health and academic achievement. However, it is unclear how and when this connection occurs, and there are few longitudinal, population-based studies on young children (Garca-Lenet al., 2019). However, ff relationships are to be discovered during infancy, early intervention is critical. This study aimed to look into the evolution of the connection between mental health and academic performance during various developmental stages of childhood and adolescence.

Schooling is also an integral aspect of childhood, with the educational journey beginning at a young age. Early detection and intervention are required if a connection between mental health and academic performance can be identified during childhood and adolescence. There are, however, few population-based longitudinal studies on children and adolescents. Early intervention is critical because academic success is linked to potential educational achievement, and mental health issues in childhood raise the likelihood of future mental health problems. Given the multifactorial etiology of mental illness and the large number of variables that influence educational achievement, there’s reason to believe the relationship between the two is complicated.

The impact of a young person’s thoughts, emotions, and actions on his or her life is better described as mental health. Mental illness exists on a continuum. Every person has a mental health experience, just like every individual has a physical health experience that ranges from “well” to “bad.” Mental health, like physical health, varies over an individual’s life due to biological and environmental influences. Many young people are mentally healthy, which means they have a reasonable opinion of themselves, have positive relationships with the people who matter to them, and are generally resilient when faced with problems at home and school. Mental disorders may be present when one’s mental health has deteriorated significantly.

A mental illness is a disease that affects a young person’s thoughts, feelings, and mood to the point where it interferes with everyday life at home and school. The mental disorder affects a disproportionate number of young people before the age of 25, implying that less than half of young people with mental illness receive sufficient care.

If left untreated or undertreated, coping with the pain of mental illness can lead to self-harm, including thoughts of suicide, which is now the second leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 24 (Rutter & Hackston 2017). The earlier mental health issues are identified and treated. The more likely the young person can prevent the onset and development of a mental disorder. Many times, symptoms of declining mental health can be seen in young people even before developing a mental disorder. Outside of the family, classrooms are the most likely location where a young person’s mental health issues will be discovered. Young people spend most of their days at school, engaging with various parents and peers, many of whom may be encouraged to assist those suffering from mental health issues in accessing early intervention and recovery resources.

Based on this literature review, it could be justified that the research on what constitutes poor mental health in school-going children, as well as queries on what are the consequences for their academic development, are partially responded to. Still, there is limited emphasis on correlations to mental health-related low learning growth and schooling systems. This dissertation looks into academic development and mental health in school-going, children.


3.1. Design

An exploratory and cross-sectional multi-center analysis is described in this dissertation. The research collects data in quantitative and qualitative ways, including a database search that yielded 3353 abstracts and 27 studies for synthesis from four databases. Participants in the studies ranged in age from 13 to 19. Synthesis was accomplished by combining qualitative data for re-examination in a meta-thematic analysis, with qualitative data tabulated into qualitative codes to aid narrative synthesis. The study was conducted over a month-long assessment on participant behaviour as would be classified in different settings.

We recruited patients from two randomly selected outpatient and two randomly selected inpatient units at each hospital (Group 2, Group 2, and Group 3). At each unit, patients were only recruited on days or weeks chosen at random; according to annual national reports on the allocation of outpatients and inpatients in hospitals, the study included outpatients and inpatients in a 4:1 ratio.

3.2. Data collection

In a review, as expected in ethical conduct in research dealing with children, the reference study has the patients and their families were given written and oral information about the study, and children and students gave written informed consent. Two professional personnel met with the family at a time and place that they preferred, generally at their home. Participants were chosen by the headteachers at their discretion and include high school students, teachers, teaching assistants, and additional learning needs coordinators.

Participants were told of the research goals, how their answers would be used, and their right to withdraw from the study before the research. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified based on first consent. The sources have questionnaires filled, data analyzed, and derived conclusions that are evaluated for observations.

3.3. Framing the research question

  • The following are some ways that untreated or undertreated mental health issues can affect students at school.
  • Controlling attention during learning activities and persevering through complex academic tasks are both problems.
  • Recalling academic knowledge is complex, and problem-solving is slow.
  • Problems with homework completion are linked to lower standardized achievement test scores.

3.4. Research question

  • Why are end-of-course ratings that are lower due to regular absences from school due to sickness and avoidance of school
  • Does Low energy for physical activities, such as athletics and other recreational activities, marked by difficulty making and sustaining friendships?
  • Does having trouble balancing the demands of independent living in college increase chances of mental ill-health and if so, to what extent?
  • IS interference with attendance and completion of college?
  • Table 4: Research Outcome
Study data sources HDI * Boys (n) Girls (n) Age (year) ** NW (%) OV (%) OB (%) Chances of mental health (%)
1 2 3


0.687 171 185 9.3 57.9 16.3 23.7 33.0 43.3 23.6

Genetics Factors in mental health

0.717 172 186 11.5 56.3 22.8 20.9 27.3 53.6 27.8

Intrauterine trigger of mental health

0.711 169 187 12.0 58.8 62.4 18.7 8.9 47.6 46.6

Habits related issues

0.807 159 179 11.7 53.9 29.6 14.9 45.9 37.4 23.7


3.5. Keywords & databases

For the years 20182021, they searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases. Depression, dyslexia, dyscalculia, a disorder of math skills, hyperkinetic disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, school-related causes, prevention, support, and care, and children and adolescents were among the specialties covered by the search words.

3.6. Search strategy and study selection criteria


Table 1: Search strategy

Query Limiters/Expanders Last Run Via Results
S1 T.I. (

Secondary schools children

OR reception OR “early

childhood” ) AND TI (

prevention OR prevent* )

AND TI ( overweight OR

obesity OR obese OR

BMI OR “body mass

index” )

OR program*

OR campaign OR trial

OR experiment* )

Limiters – Published

Date: 20050101-


Narrow by subject: –

child, preschool: 2-5


Search modes –


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


S2 T.I. (Secondary schools children

) AND TI (

prevention OR prevent* )

AND TI ( #

OR campaign OR trial

OR experiment* )

Limiters – Published

Date: 20050101-


Search modes –


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


S3 Secondary schools children

obesity OR obese OR

BMI OR “body mass

index” ) AND (intervention OR

evaluation OR program*

OR campaign OR trial

OR experiment* )

Limiters – Published

Date: 20050101-


Search modes –


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


S4 Secondary schools children

OR campaign OR trial

OR experiment* )

Limiters – Published

Date: 20050101-


Search modes –


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


S5 Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search ScreenAdvanced



Complete; Academic Search


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


S6 Interface EBSCO host

Poor Mental Well-being and the Impact on Outcomes for Secondary-Age Children

Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search

Elite; MEDLINE Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Interface EBSCO host

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search


Interface – EBSCOhost

Research Databases

Search Screen – Advanced


Database – CINAHL

Complete; Academic Search




3.7. Data extraction

This dissertation adopted the Incremental Extraction approach. Incremental Extractiondeals with delta changes in thedata. TheExtractiontool is aware of its need to recognize new or changed information based on time and dates. Using theIncremental Extraction methodmeans that thedataengineer will have to add complexextractionlogic first to the source system




Table 2: Search strategy flow diagram

Studies chose for review

(BSc n = 6)












(MSc n= 8)







Studies identified as relevant for review

(n = 27)

Full-text articles relevant to the literature review question and assessed for eligibility

(n =13)

Records identified through the following databases EBSCOhost Research Databases Search Screen – Advanced Search Database – CINAHL Complete; Academic Search Elite; MEDLINE


(n = 3,704)

Records excluded


Duplicates or in a foreign language or protocols only or systematic reviews

(n = 13)

Studies did not have the correct intervention (n = 14)

Studies did not measure the correct outcome (n =12)

Qualitative studies (14)




Records screened

(n = 74)

Records after filters/ limiters applied

(n = 137)

Full-text articles excluded, with reasons

(n = 6)






























As referenced, this dissertation observation is derived from descriptive analyses to explain the features of the sample and the positive and negative effects of care practices. In reference studies, to investigate discrepancies in positive and negative results of caring behaviours about the three-parent groups, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was used (PI, MI, and SA). Two multiple linear regression models were run, with all independent variables entered simultaneously, to look for factors linked to positive and negative outcomes of caring activities as calculated by the PANOC-YC20. The Thematic Content Analysis techniques always used codes on literal frequency to deduce experience and correlate with mental health definitions.

4.1. Behavioral and emotional issues

The findings suggest that social selection processes exist in the research. At the age of eight, behavioural and emotional issues were linked to performing below grade level at twelve. Similarly, mental health issues at the age of 12 were linked to incomplete final grades in compulsory school and ineligibility for higher education. Academic achievement at the ages of 15 and 19 did not raise the risk of mental illness at the age of 20. According to the descriptive figures, 28% of the children scored in the clinical range on the positive outcomes total score (12) and 10% in the clinical range on the adverse effects total score (>8). Group 2 children (34%) posted a higher percentage of restricted positive outcomes than Group 1 and Group 3 children (24%) and 30%, respectively).

Compared to Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 children (23%) registered more negative outcomes on a level of concern (7 percent and 9 percent, respectively). The three-parent groups’ children’s ratings on positive and negative effects of caring behaviors (PANOC total score/extent) were not substantially different. The hyperkinetic disorder affects 16% of the population. Motor hyperactivity, attention loss, and impulsive behavior are the most common symptoms. Learning conditions such as dyscalculia and dyslexia affect 46% of children, while depression affects 45% of children and teenagers, with girls twice as likely as boys to be depressed. Repeating a grade, truancy, and dropping out of school are all increased by mental health issues. Changes in the educational climate and the introduction of evidence-based school services can reduce the risk of internalizing or externalizing mental health issues.

4.2. Social skills

The study shows that better social skills in the child and less household management and personal care for the parent were predictors of more positive outcomes in the regression study. Higher levels of personal care predicted more negative consequences for the student, more financial and practical management and lower social skills, and a higher external. There were also gaps in access to home-based services, family stability, and social support among the three-parent classes. In comparison to Group 2 and Group 3 students, Group 1 students reported significantly higher family cohesion and social support from their networks.

Compared to students in the other two parent classes, Group 1 students often received more formal treatment, such as practical home-based services. Overall, 6% of students earned home-based care for 1.5 hours a week on average. The results of disparities between parent groups (PI, MI, and SA) are consistent with a previous study focused on the same sample of demographics, fitness, and quality of life differences among the spouses of patients with a somatic disorder, mental illness, or substance abuse. According to the students, there were no significant differences in external LoC and social skills between parent classes. For children and teenagers, the level of social skills was comparable to that of the general population.

The entire school district gains when school officials devote time and energy to addressing the mental health of the students they represent. According to Newton et al. (2017), Young people who receive adequate mental health services have increased academic performance, are more likely to graduate, and are more likely to attend and complete college, in addition to having a healthy student body that is more involved in school life. All educators are involved in these results because when students succeed, school systems succeed.

Positive school climates, adequate mental and behavioral health services, including a staff skilled in promoting mental and emotional wellbeing, and integrated processes for recognizing, referring, and addressing mental health needs all strengthen young people’s academic, social, and emotional outcomes. The services for young people dealing with barriers to learning, including initiatives that address mental wellbeing, school environment, violence prevention, and trauma, have grown in response to the growing recognition of the connection between mental health and school outcomes. The consequences of poor mental health can vary from person to person. It has the potential to damage not only one’s mental health but also one’s physical health.


In the study, depression, for example, has been attributed to a 67 percent increased risk of heart disease and a 50 percent increased risk of cancer death. Mental health issues may cause individuals to become estranged from their friends in the short term due to perceived unattractive personality characteristics or habits. If the individual does not know or understand what is going on, they may also trigger rage, fear, sadness, and feelings of helplessness. On the other hand, good mental health is defined by a person’s ability to perform various functions and behaviors, such as learning. The capacity to experience, express, and control a broad spectrum of positive and negative emotions can shape and sustain positive interpersonal relationships. Students’ energy levels, attention, dependability, mental ability, and optimism can all be affected by mental health issues, resulting in poor results.

According to Newton et al. (2017), depression is linked to lower grade point averages, and co-occurring depression and anxiety may exacerbate this connection. Academic stress, general school stress with examinations and tests, peer pressure and feeling different, and dealing with my sexuality all contributed to some pretty low mental health. Stress may cause extreme depression in teenagers and can lead to mental illness in fragile young adults. Stress hormones are more sensitive in the teenage brain, and stress can cause harm that persists into adulthood.

5.1. Quantitative synthesis

Mental illness and learning disabilities may also cause school-going children to drop out of school. The long-term implications of these school-related disciplinary issues are dire: underemployment, unemployment, imprisonment, and a lower quality of life. Early on, problems arise. Anxiety was classified as the most common mental health problem among children in 81 of the 3353 files and questionnaires. They concluded that anxiety in school-going children was caused by one or more of the following factors: family breakdown, fears of being isolated from their classmates, peer relationships, the transition to high school, and schoolwork.

Depression, behavior disorders, phobias, autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD], and low self-esteem were also common mental health issues among school-age children. Other studies have found correlations between these conditions, which can cause anxiety and hinder social and emotional growth. The research revealed that home life stability and the position of the student were common themes. Some children have problematic attitudes and are unable to concentrate. Concerns over schoolwork or problems at home may be contributing factors. Some students work long hours and see their children infrequently. Kids have a hard time adapting to new family arrangements.

Poverty, peer relationships, school ethos, low self-esteem, lack of outdoor stimuli, coping skills, and additional learning needs were the most frequently mentioned, with cases of social pressure to look or behave a sure way to fit in becoming less common. Other factors that may directly impact a child’s mental wellbeing include struggles with schoolwork and bereavement.

These results are not surprising; they are similar to those of other research that has identified many of these factors affecting children’s mental health. Despite being an increasing concern, the effect of bullying on school-age children’s mental wellbeing was not directly reported by participants (Kardefelt-Winther 2017). More than a third of children aged 10 to 12 say they have been physically bullied at school, and half say their peers have excluded them. Relationships with peers, which five practitioners listed, may have given an indirect connection to this. Many participants mentioned playing a dual role in school-age childrens wellbeing: promoting risk factor awareness and developing resilience in children and collaborating with students and specialist organizations to provide early support and intervention for those with more complex needs.

While participants addressed the importance of assisting children in exploring emotions and developing resilience skills, less emphasis was put on raising mental health knowledge. This could suggest a fear of shame in using medical terms and discussing mental health disorders, but it could also indicate a lack of physician knowledge of more nuanced issues. Furthermore, due to some of the concerns that could occur, discussing important health subjects is daunting for participants. Participants should be unable to participate in such discussions if they believe they have not been adequately educated and lack comprehension.

Respondents to the survey were also asked how confident they were in detecting when children needed mental health assistance. 27 of the 81 participants said they were optimistic to moderately confident, 18 said they were less confident, and nine said they were not confident at all.’ When asked how confident they were in providing advice and support to children with mental health problems, 17 participants said they were confident to moderately confident, while 26 said they were not at all confident. During the interviews, some participants stated that they were not always sure how to help children better but sought advice from friends, principals, and educational psychologists. Given that the questions were about mental health in general, those who lacked trust may have been worried about helping children with more severe needs.

Similarly, respondents to the questionnaire were asked whether there was anything that stopped them from supporting students’ mental health needs. A mental-related question elicited 21 “no” responses from the participants. Seventeen said it was due to a lack of personal awareness of mental health, while four said it was due to a lack of expertise within the local authority to provide specialist intervention. Participants pointed out that a lack of parental consent can be an obstacle, as some students want to keep their children out of wellbeing programs like SAP.

Participants in the study praised SAP for assisting them in working through problems in their lives that could affect their social, emotional, and mental wellbeing. The SAP program successfully assists children in developing self-esteem and resilience, which enable school-age children to cope with conflict, solve problems, control emotions, and rebound from setbacks (Tener et al., 2020). However, more knowledge of the core character traits, qualities, and behaviors that underpin resilience and emotional wellbeing throughout life is necessary.

5.1.1. Poor Mental Well-being

School-age children should have the right to get the help they need to encourage healthy mental health as soon as possible. Classroom professionals need the following things to be able to play their part: senior staff commitment; successful school policies; access to relevant educational opportunities courses that concentrate on the causes of problematic behavior and symptoms of psychological or emotional distress; supportive home-school relationships; and ‘readily available’ specialist help. This assistance should take the form of a named pastoral worker with mental health training who is based in the school and whose responsibilities include leading whole-school approaches, advising teachers, assisting students, and maintaining a close working partnership between the school, student and child counseling, and mental health services (Lawn et al., 2020). A change in philosophy is needed to usher in a new era of openness and help one that incorporates mental health in everyday conversations with children and young people.

Schools that prioritize mental health provide a safe environment where students can form positive relationships and develop resilience, provide opportunities to explore mental health, the impact of stigma, and develop resilience, intervene early to address underlying issues, and recognize when external support is needed are the most likely to succeed. However, whatever intervention techniques are introduced, careful thinking on how to strike an acceptable balance between ‘support and intervention’ versus ‘over-protection and the language of insecurity’ is needed if the researchers are to better equip children with the resilience and coping skills required to lead a world outside of the self.

5.1.2. Impact on Secondary-Age Children

The study’s results and an account of what was learned from it support the need to learn more about how various types of caring activities and factors affect caregiving outcomes, especially children’s feelings of control and their ability to recognize negative outcome triggers. Health practitioners must do a more thorough and systematic evaluation of both the parent’s and children’s needs. Assessment of children’s care activities and their need for appropriate knowledge should be done to understand the role played by the child. The children’s need for follow-up on caring activities, respite, and emotional support should be evaluated in particular to ensure that children have the requisite skills and a sense of mastery.

5.1.3. Reflexive account

The research uses a qualitative study approach, primary interviews, focus groups, and participant observation for data collection. Any of these techniques were used in the sense of ethnographic research. Primary sources were also used to gather information. Traditional qualitative data analysis approaches such as narrative analysis. Surveys and questionnaires were also heavily used in quantitative methods (Woo et al., 2018). As in this dissertation, narrative research enables understanding, describing, and acting within the context of the storyteller’s experiences; the story is how we think about the world.

5.1.4. Reflection

As a reflection, I seem to get the perception that internalizing certain commonly appropriate practices appears to be desirable to avoid a culture shock when entering academic life, between natural selection and an evolutionary approach. Beyond the academic test, the thesis provides some sense of broad-based understanding of the subject as a moment of life. Heroism has the added benefit of confining the thesis to an exceptional area, and by removing it from everyday life, that we accept practices that would be considered questionable in other contexts. Because of the high incidence of mental health issues in children and adolescents and the significance of these problems for young people’s academic growth, and the poor uptake of appropriate healthcare services, the risks of mental health problems should be detected early and minimized by preventive steps. Children, teenagers, and their families should be better informed about the healthcare choices available, and access to those resources should be increased.

5.2. Research conclusions

School-aged children often face negative stigma-related consequences due to their desire to maintain their social identity and social capital. The need for developmentally relevant models of mental illness stigma is critical for the development of successful intervention strategies. Accepting or opposing labels, experiencing poorer mental health, feeling rejected or afraid of the need to ‘fit in,’ not seeking support, guilt, and remaining secretive of their difficulties/medication use were all reported as adverse stigma-related outcomes the study. Family and healthcare providers have hurt people’s perceptions of mental illness.

Youth restricted their experiences with other young people who had mental health issues, increasing their perceived sense of social acceptance. With adequate funding and support, districts should provide appropriate professional development to principals, teachers, school counsellors, school social workers, school psychologists, and mental health specialists to help them support comprehensive school-based interventions and coordinate mental wellness services.

Superintendents and school boards should promote comprehensive school-based mental health programs that address such issues as the promotion of all students’ social, emotional, and behavioral health in a learning environment, the reduction in the likelihood of at-risk students developing social, emotional, or behavioral health problems, and the prevention of at-risk students developing social, emotional, or behavioral health problems with adequate funding and support.

Early detection of mental, cognitive, or behavioral issues and the availability of early intervention services. Handling school suicides ensures that school administrators connect effectively with students, teachers, and families while also doing everything possible to avoid another suicide (Stoppelbein, McRae & Smith 2021). On the other hand, school leaders with sufficient resources will include extensive professional development for teachers, other staff members, and school and community service workers employed in schools, including instruction in the strategies and services required to detect students with or at-risk mental illness early on.

The use of referral systems that efficiently link such students to care and intervention services in the school and community Strategies for promoting a healthy school atmosphere, as well as frameworks for school-based teamwork, planning, and consultation, are used to determine how to deal with suicide when it happens and what can be done to avoid potential suicides. School leaders can help students’ mental health by developing a healthy, caring atmosphere characterized by adult-student interactions that reflect high expectations, encouragement, and mutual respect and encourage positive interpersonal and professional relationships among teachers, staff, and students.

Fostering student self-discipline and respect for others by encouraging quality sustained participation and engagement of students and community members in the school, collaborating with students’ families to promote social, academic, and intellectual performance, and cultivating student self-discipline and respect for others. Providing an adult advocate to advise and personalize each student’s educational and school experience and partner with community partners to address the needs of students and their families in terms of social, physical, and mental health services. There is also a need to implement scheduling and student grouping practices that are flexible, meet each student’s needs, and ensure successful academic growth and personal development.

Even though this small-scale exploratory research does not attempt to generalize, it has provided some thoughtful insight into school practitioners’ attitudes and activities about supporting and fostering pupils’ mental wellbeing in the secondary classroom. First, even though mental wellbeing is a component of the Healthy Schools Scheme, it seems that children might not be subjected to the word or introduced to “specific mental health issues (Bakolis et al., 2018). Participants provided broad definitions of mental health and listed subjects they discussed with their children, but most of these were focused on emotional wellbeing.

Some participants’ apprehension about discussing mental health and mental illness with children is limited. It is essential that participants not perceive such conversations as uncomfortable or taboo, which may lead children to perceive mental health problems as odd, something to be afraid of and secret. This reluctance may indicate a lack of practitioner expertise or fear of instilling negative beliefs in children. The findings demonstrate the powerful dominance of social stigma regarding mental health, casting doubt on any calls for a more open society in this region.

Unless school administrators feel confident in their ability to provide resources for children to freely discuss mental health terms and conditions in a secure and supportive atmosphere, social stigma is likely to persist, and young people’s needs are at best poorly served and at worst unmet. In terms of student wellbeing, participants reported anxiety as the most common ailment among children, possibly due to rising societal pressures.

Many participants believed that the primary cause of children’s mental health problems was dysfunction and inconsistency in their homes. Participants seemed to pay close attention to the skills they believed they needed to improve children’s mental health, as well as the part they played in collaborating with students and outside organizations. Despite policy frameworks like the Mental Wellbeing Strategy, which aim to ensure that school participants have enough knowledge and expertise to support this component of a child’s health, the participants in this study felt that training opportunities were missing (Jimenez 2020). Mental health training for school personnel has long been described as a flaw.


5.3. Research recommendations

In collaboration with services provided by the healthcare system public health services; general practitioners; outpatient, part-inpatient, and inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric and psychosomatic services, the school, as a central institution in the education system, with its support systems in the psychosocial area school social workers, school psychologists, will play a central role in this. Screenings, preventative steps, classroom and school environment changes, and advanced teacher preparation

Stress factors at school, such as unempathetic and unsupportive teacher-student relationships and a poor classroom or school environment, raise the risk of mental health issues in children and adolescents (Holen, Waaktaar, & Sagatun 2018). Hyperkinetic illness, depressive episodes, and particular developmental deficiencies with scholastic skills are examples of mental health issues in young people.

Specific reading and spelling disorders and specific math skills disorders hinder children’s and adolescents’ success and significantly increase the likelihood of absenteeism/truancy and school dropout. Doctors can assist teachers in identifying stress factors in the school setting and reducing risks for children and adolescents in that setting by cooperating with schools and finding input from and working with school social workers and school psychologists.

School-based intervention services have minor to moderate impact sizes in lowering the risk of mental illness in children and adolescents. School-based mental health services have had little or no impact so far. It is recommended that teachers in all types of schools receive specialized training on mental health conditions and disorders in children and adolescents with mental health problems. Also, run lunchtime clubs to enable students to divert their attention away from their studies. Arts and crafts, baking, drama clubs, book clubs, and film clubs are only a few examples of what these clubs might be for. Students will feel more included due to the sense of community, and the burden of work will be relieved for a while. Students must understand they may come to you with any problems or concerns. Make this clear to your students so they know you’re still available to talk (Domitrovich et al., 2017). You could also assign an instructor for each year group to assist any students who are having difficulty. This person should hopefully have mental health training and know-how to help.

5.4. Research limitations

The use of primarily well-established questionnaires, related data between the child and the ill parent, data on three-parent categories (physical and mental illness, drug abuse), attempts to hire a representative sample from five public hospitals serving and the lack of missing data for most questions due to the requisite answers in the online data collection are significant strengths. The study’s fundamental flaws were an unknown inclusion rate of qualifying families and the fact that the sample was likely biased against patients with mental illness and drug abuse who had less severe diseases.

Many eligible patients in mental health outpatient facilities were likely unaware of the study because their clinicians were hesitant to tell them. However, they were too sick to participate or simply forgot (Forster et al., 2020). Many substance abuse patients were not eligible because they did not have custody of their children. The health of substance abuse patients currently in care was likely higher than in previous times. Due to these conditions, the condition of families, the scope, and the results of children’s care activities for ill students are likely to be less optimistic than the study indicates.


Ferrie, J., Miller, H., & Hunter, S. C. (2020). Psychosocial outcomes of mental illness stigma in children and adolescents: A mixed-methods systematic review. Children and Youth Services Review, 113, 104961.

Panayiotou, M., Humphrey, N., & Hennessey, A. (2020). Implementation matters: Using complier average causal effect estimation to determine the impact of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum on children’s quality of life. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(2), 236.

Wokoma, I. P., & Udochukwu, N. G. 2020. The Influence of Parenting Styles on Bullying Behavior Among Students of Secondary Age in Ikwerre Local Government Area. International Journal on Integrated Education, 3(2), 99-114.

Mishara, B. L., & Dufour, S. (2020). Randomized Control Study of the Implementation and Effects of a New Mental Health Promotion Program to Improve Coping Skills in 9 to 11-Year-Old Children: Passport: Skills for Life. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2927.

Stankovska, G., Dimitrovski, D., Angelkoska, S., Ibraimi, Z., & Uka, V. (2018). Emotional Intelligence, Test Anxiety, and Academic Stress among University Students. Bulgarian Comparative Education Society.

Rehmani, N., Khan, Q. A., & Fatima, S. S. (2018). Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in students of a private medical school in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 34(3), 696.

Mitchell, M. S., Greenbaum, R. L., Vogel, R. M., Mawritz, M. B., & Keating, D. J. (2019). Can you handle the pressure? The effect of performance pressure on stress appraisals, self-regulation, and behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 62(2), 531-552.

Landolt, K., O’Donnell, E., Hazi, A., Dragano, N., & Wright, B. J. (2017). An experimental examination of the effort-reward imbalance model of occupational stress: Increased financial reward is related to reduced stress physiology. Biological psychology, 125, 121-129.

Garca-Len, M. ., Prez-Mrmol, J. M., Gonzalez-Prez, R., del Carmen Garca-Ros, M., & Peralta-Ramrez, M. I. (2019). Relationship between resilience and stress: Perceived stress, stressful life events, HPA axis response during a stressful task and hair cortisol. Physiology & behavior, 202, 87-93.

Rutter, E., & Hackston, A. (2017). On the effective stress law for rock-on-rock frictional sliding and fault slip triggered using fluid injection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 375(2103), 20160001.

Newton, M. A., Knorpp, A. J., Sushkevich, V. L., Paladin, D., & van Bokhoven, J. A. (2020). Active sites and mechanisms in the direct conversion of methane to methanol using Cu in zeolitic hosts: a critical examination. Chemical Society Reviews, 49(5), 1449-1486.

Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2017). How does the time children spend using digital technology impact their mental wellbeing, social relationships, and physical activity?: an evidence-focused literature review. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti.

Tener, D., Marmor, A., Katz, C., Newman, A., Silovsky, J. F., Shields, J., & Taylor, E. (2020). How does COVID-19 impact intrafamilial child sexual abuse? Comparison analysis of reports by practitioners in Israel and the US. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104779.

Lawn, S., Roberts, L., Willis, E., Couzner, L., Mohammadi, L., & Goble, E. (2020). The effects of emergency medical service work on ambulance personnel’s psychological, physical, and social wellbeing: a systematic review of qualitative research. BMC psychiatry, 20(1), 1-16.

Woo, H., Dondanville, A., Jang, H., Na, G., & Jang, Y. (2020). A Content Analysis of the Counseling Literature on Technology Integration: American Counseling Association (ACA) Counseling Journals between 2000 and 2018. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 42(3), 319-333.

Holen, S., Waaktaar, T., & Sagatun, . (2018). A chance lost in the prevention of school dropout? Teacher-student relationships mediate the effect of mental health problems on noncompletion of upper-secondary school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 62(5), 737-753.

Domitrovich, C. E., Durlak, J. A., Staley, K. C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Socialemotional competence: An essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Child Development, 88(2), 408-416.

Forster, M., Grigsby, T. J., Gower, A. L., Mehus, C. J., & McMorris, B. J. (2020). The role of social support in the association between childhood adversity and adolescent self-injury and suicide: findings from a statewide sample of high school students. Journal of youth and adolescence, 49(6), 1195-1208.

Stoppelbein, L., McRae, E., & Smith, S. (2021). The researchers are examining Student-Teacher Relationship and CallousUnemotional Traits in Children with Adverse Childhood Experiences. School mental health, 13(1), 129-142.

Bakolis, I., Hammoud, R., Smythe, M., Gibbons, J., Davidson, N., Tognin, S., & Mechelli, A. (2018). Urban mind: Using smartphone technologies to investigate the impact of nature on mental wellbeing in real-time. BioScience, 68(2), 134-145.

Jimenez, V. (2020). Impact of mental health programs in middle school on students’ academic achievement, emotional health, and social skills: a systematic literature review.



Literature search table

Keywords Database No of Articles Selected Number of articles
Depression, dyslexia, dyscalculia, school-related causes, prevention, PubMed, 23 5
a disorder of math skills, hyperkinetic disorder, PsycINFO 14 3
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder Google Scholar 8 1
support, and care, and children and adolescents PsycINFO 11 4

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