Homo Erectus: Who was the earliest modern ancestor of today’s homo sapiens?
Homo Erectus was a species of mammal that was, in form and function, a modern foreshadower of today’s human being. Homo Erectus lived from about 1,900,000 years to about 400,000 years ago. “The Latin word Homo means human being. The term erectus means upright and refers to the creature’s upright posture. Homo erectus differed from modern human beings in having a large, projecting face; a low, sloping forehead; and a large brow ridge, a raised strip of bone across the lower forehead. Homo erectus also possessed a large jaw that lacked a chin.” (Mann, 2005) The brain of Homo erectus was smaller than the brain of modern human beings, even though this species was able to manipulate simple tools, contain fire, walk in migrating tribes over long distances, and engage in other, modern humanlike behaviors.
Homo erectus is commonly characterized as “an accomplished tool maker and tool user.” It is assumed he or she used “hand-axes” and sharp-edged flints to make fire. The tools of Homo erectus are the first in the fossil record to show conscious design of any complexity. Wooden tools and weapons are also assumed to be present in the tool kit of this species. However, “none has been preserved in the fossil record.” Thus there is no conclusive archeological proof such tools were used, even if the species could technically manipulate such tools unlike its earlier ancestors. (Long Foreground: Species Timeline, p.2) Controversial claims have also been made about cannibalism in some species, given the fossil and archeological evidence, another difficult judgment to make, given the imperfect nature of the surviving skeletal record.
Fossils of Homo erectus usually assumed about 1,800,000 years old have been found at a site called Dmanisi in the country of Georgia, which lies at the eastern end of the Black Sea. Fossil remains show that Homo erectus migrated as far as the island of Java in Southeast Asia before spreading into southern Europe and northern China. Recent dating techniques applied to earlier finds in Java and the Caucasus Mountains indicate dates much earlier than that and would place Homo erectus in Asia over 2 million years ago. Such early dates would, if proven accurate, dramatically overturn the currently accepted chronology of early human development. (Long Foreground: Species Timeline, p.4)
Thus, two different hypotheses exist as to when Homo erectus first arose. The first, most traditional model is called “The Multi-regional Evolutionary Model and used to be by far the most popular until recent genetic evidence was brought to light. “This model believes that roughly 1 million years ago, Homo erectus expanded its range beyond Africa, first into Asia and then into Europe, developing geographically variable populations. Homo erectus then became the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens by a gradual worldwide (excluding the Americas and Australia) evolutionary transformation of all populations of Homo erectus.” (“Homo Erectus,” 2005)
At this date, however, the earliest claimed dates for Homo erectus outside of Africa are still highly controversial. Long Foreground: Species Timeline, p.4) Most anthropologists using conventional dating techniques believe that Homo erectus originated in Africa and soon after migrated to these other continents because, geographically, the land masses of the earth were connected in areas that they are not connected today. “In 1984, a nearly complete fossil skeleton of an adolescent Homo erectus boy was found near Lake Turkana in Kenya. The fossil is about 1,600,000 years old. The skeleton indicated that he had died at about 11 or 12 years of age. The fossil is the most complete skeleton of an early human ancestor ever found.” (Mann, 2005) “This boy stood more than 5 feet tall when he died, and would have exceeded 6 feet — had he lived to maturity. His cranial capacity was 880 cc and his body stature (tall, thin, long arms and legs) are typical of humans adapted to open, tropical environments.” (“Homo Erectus,” 2005)
But although the fossil and environmental evidence is convincing regarding the “Multi-regional” hypothesis, it is not conclusive. Some anthropologists think that the earliest Homo erectus fossils from Africa should be called by another name, Homo ergaster. These anthropologists point out that these earlier African fossils have thinner skull bones than those of later Homo erectus fossils found in Asia. They believe that Homo ergaster migrated out of Africa to Asia and that Homo erectus developed from this earlier species. But there is a great statistical unlikelihood of such an evolutionary development occurring in parallel over wide areas. (Long Foreground: Species Timeline, p.1)
Still, merely because it is statistically unlikely does not mean the theory called the “Out of Africa” model is impossible. Scholars who advocate this theory believe “that that it was not a gradual worldwide change that led to the evolutionary transformation of populations of Homo erectus, but a speciation event in a single population in Africa, which then spread throughout the Old World and replaced established populations. Allan Wilson advanced the theory in 1987 and said that genetic evidence suggested that all modern humans evolved from a single female that lived in Africa approximately 200,000 years ago. This is also known as the “Mitochondrial Eve Hypothesis,” as biological or genetic data supports this thesis more than fossil and environmental evidence. (“Homo Erectus,” 2005)
Anthropologists even disagree on the fate of Homo erectus. Some think that as Homo erectus was an ancestor of modern human beings, it gradually faded into genealogical history. Others think the species became rapidly extinct. (Mann, 2005) And until another great fossil find occurs, or another significant advance in the dating of fossil and archeological evidence, the debate is likely to continue within the scientific community.
“Homo Erectus.” (2005) Geocites Palaeoanthropology web site. Herectus. Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/palaeoanthropology/Herectus.html
‘Long Foreground: Species Timeline.” Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 at http://www.wsu.edu: 8001/vwsu/gened/learn-modules/top_longfor/timeline/h-sapiens/h-sapiens-a.html
Mann, Alan E. (2005) “Homo erectus.” World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. Herectus. Retrieved 16 Mary 2005 atÂ .
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more