PREGNANCY INTENTION AND MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN UK
To investigate if pregnant women are less likely than non-pregnant women to consume alcohol throughout early pregnancy. The forward-looking, community-based pregnancy cohort is from the start (20002012). In telephony interviews during registration (mean6standard 48613 days of gestation) and subsequently, in the first quarter, demographic, reproductive and behavioural information was gathered. The interviews covered features of alcohol use. To assess the relationship between pregnancy and alcohol, we have utilized logistic regression. Most women stopped or reduced drinking irrespective of their purpose following identification of pregnancy. This indicates that encouraging knowledge of early pregnancy may be more beneficial than encouraging alcohol withdrawal from everyone who can imagine. The advice indicates that pregnant women refrain from drinking; nevertheless, prior research has shown contradictory findings on the intentional effects of pregnancy on alcohol use. The aim was to investigate the independent relationship from the preconception period (30 days before missing measures) of pregnancy intention to mother alcohol use throughout the first trimester. We also aimed to identify maternal features of ongoing alcohol consumption in pregnancy and consuming binge consumption.
Table of Contents
Alcohol use is a significant social and wellbeing issue during breastfeeding. The common reason for the births of mentally delayed children and the primary cause of fetal malformation is consuming too much. The possibility of harmful effects on a fetus, including early mortality, low birth weight, birth abnormalities, neurodevelopmental diseases, spontaneous abortions etc., are associated with alcohol use during pregnancy (Reynolds et al. 2019). Exposure In other terms, alcohol use during pregnancy is harmful to the fetus and the exposed infant is exposed to several conditions in addition, this project would undergo a rapid review of the ecological hypothesis and the relationships between pregnant people and four hypotheses, concluded with a brief overview of guidelines of how to increase the effectiveness of the social question. The pregnant women reflect the values, experience and actions of the participant who are instrumental in their behaviour.
Background of the research
According to Grant et al. (2019), the worldwide issue in public health is alcohol dependence during birth. In consequence, children have been subjected to alcohol at the antenatal level. This leads to different behaviour, behavioural problems, problems of attention and illegal activity. In the USA nearly one in eight pregnant women confirm that they have drunk alcohol when they were pregnant according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Experimental animal research shows that mild to moderate intake of alcohol during pregnancy may trigger issues for mental wellbeing and behaviour in offspring. Prenatal consumption of alcoholic beverages often affects the behavioural effect of offspring more than it does on the weight of infants. This often involves age, education, salary, and position variables contributing to the approach of a person in the pregnancy to alcohol. A research carried out in the UK found many individual risks associated with the use of maternal alcohol during pregnancy, including maternal age, expected pregnancy, usage of substances, marital status, the background of bodily and emotional violence, mental wellbeing, self-estimation or prenatal care (Rosenberg et al. 2018). In addition, a Watt survey in the Western Cape province of Delft Township found that pregnancy itself was stressful, with people talking about their feelings of deception and guilt about pregnancy. They spoke about hunger, jobs, food shortages and the problems of their economic condition. This indicates that women who engage with prior stressors to affect drinking trajectories may become mentally exhausting as a lifetime.
The outcomes of this research can be mixed since fetal alcohol consumption predisposing factors are determined. Several previous research has not properly controlled confusion, such as family processes and parental characteristics related to child conduct and maternal consumption of alcohol. However, several studies have focused on limited, selective clinical samples with sometimes inaccessible family processes and parental characteristics (Lim et al. 2019). Consequently, it wasn’t during the chance of confusion caused by a simplistic distinction between kids born to mothers and children born to non-drinkers that the topics were monitored to show unnoticed differences. This thesis aims to resolve the literature methodological constraints and research holes. The report examined the association between motherly and child behavioural results relating to substance consumption during breastfeeding. In this analysis, this hypothesis is used as a basis to explain the exposure to fetal alcohol within the current pregnancy context. The theory of Ecological Systems may offer a helpful analytical basis to explain the function of the social context in the pregnancy drinking process. Researchers should also consider wider socioeconomic and environmental effects on wellbeing and health behaviour, and social, structural causes to encourage and discourage community health behaviour.
Hill et al. (2019) opined that the microsystems are used to communicate with pregnant women nearest to them, including family, family, husband, friends and health staff. A husband, family and friends of a woman can either function as backers of the attempts of the woman not to drink or as adverse factors by pressing her to drink. For example, a Western Cape study by Watt found that certain women were encouraged to continue their drink when one woman who decided to refrain from alcoholic beverages while pregnant to protect her baby’s health but who received a backlash from her friends said: “My friend said she was drinking when she was pregnant when her baby was all right. In addition, Merocele points out that traits of spouses and families as maternal risk factors have been established (Kingsland et al. 2018). This means that social networks may induce the woman to drink through pregnancy, for instance, socializing with people who frequently drink, social community behaviour, drinking pressure from friends and the usage of alcohol or other substances by their husband. Thus, contact between females who are pregnant and their social network will either decrease or increase drinking, based on their behaviour.
Aims & Objectives
This research aims to identify the consequences of consuming alcohol during the pregnancy period.
The objective of the research is
As commented by Shawe et al. (2019), Mesosystems consists of links between microsystems, including the relationship between the partner of a pregnant woman and the clinic. In some low-income nations, many men do not attend health facilities during pregnancy with their wives until complications exist. In a study conducted in Limpopo, South Africa, several men noticed that they wanted to think about the responsibilities they would expect after their birth and that they wanted to help their partners. In his study by Kaye, he found out that men who accompanied their partners to the clinics normally remained outside the clinic while women took part in health discussions and consultations with medical workers while they had neither space nor seat and were attentive to the experiences of male involvement in health care during pregnancy and the birth of their partners (Sundermann et al. 2021). Consequently, during breastfeeding, men sometimes feel distant from their wives. The failure to communicate can lead to the spouse not knowing pregnant women’s health and support needs, the knowledge they may receive if they are permitted to visit the clinic with their partner. Participating in prenatal consultation often gives fathers the ability to feel similar to birth. Researchers also conclude that extra attempts should be taken to emphasize the common duty of men and to encourage their active maternity participation.
Inductive is a method used by the researcher to do a study on a study subject of this kind on which there is little or no previous literature. In such research, the researcher starts the research after completing the study with the observation of objects and the researchers’ design theory. Inductive reasoning helps to generate meaning from the knowledge that the researcher must collect from many sources. The researcher employs an inductive research method to the analysis of the pattern and to understand the connection between various factors. To draw up a hypothesis, it is extremely essential to get information about the connection between various research factors. The major advantage of the studies is that they may simply alter the course of the research whenever it is.
Several analyses and the interpretation of the features of the human being and action are regarded as interpretivism. Interpretivism often includes understanding elements that involve public objectives in many empirical studies. Interpretivism may be defined as Interpretivism. According to truth in social care is an important practice, according to the opinions of interpreters, and it would also contribute to integrating the research. This thesis includes the theory of interpretivism analysis to draw up this study. Science architecture is a crucial, equally essential element to a successful result of research. The qualitative study design is called a flexible research design technique that often helps to adjust multiple methodologies during all studies. Qualitative analysis strategies must be used in this particular research, and the purpose of this research is to explain various views, viewpoints and different hypotheses and principles.
Qualitative analysis is based on evidence derived from observations, interactions, questionnaires, focus groups, observational participants, natural settings recordings, papers, and objects. In addition, the results are not numerical. Ethnology, grounded philosophy, discourse research and phenomenological analysis interpretive includes qualitative approaches. In history, anthropology, political studies, psychology, social work and educational analysis, high-quality research was used. Qualitative scholars analyze the perception of their social reality through individuals. Qualitative study is focused on social science fields such as psychology, sociology and anthropology. The qualitative analysis approaches, therefore, encourage respondents to be thoroughly and further examined and questioned based on their reactions, so that they can appreciate the motivation and the emotions of the interviewer/researcher. Qualitative methods of study are structured to expose a specific audience’s conduct and interpretation concerning a specific issue. Different forms of qualitative interviewing approaches are commonly used, such as a detailed interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, topic review and case study investigation. The findings of qualitative approaches are more detailed and the evidence collected can be derived from them very quickly. The qualitative techniques of study have been derived from social sciences and behaviour. Today, our culture is more complex, and what people believe and experience is impossible to grasp. Online qualitative techniques of analysis allow one to consider this because there is more communication and description.
Sampling is a compilation of an under-set, from inside a statistical group, to approximate the features of the entire population, in statistics, quality assurance and survey methods. Statisticians try to portray the community concerned by the surveys. Two sample benefits are lower costs and quicker data collection than the whole population measure. Way of chance. A sampling procedure may be used to select samples from a larger community that include a process that promotes the notion of chance. To be regarded as a chance survey, a representative has to be chosen using a random draw. The key criterion for probability sampling is that all people in your community have a defined and equitable likelihood of selection. For example, if you have 100 individuals each, you have 1 in 100 chances to get picked. For example. The most straightforward chance to create a survey that is genuinely reflective of the population is the probability samples. Simple testing since the name indicates that the sample selection process should be entirely random. This sampling procedure is as simple as assigning individual numbers (sample) to individuals, and then automatically selecting certain numbers at random. Lastly, the selected numbers are the participants used in the survey. The following investigations were performed utilising the test sample technology.
Data Collection Tool
The compilation of a project must be based on the project’s needs to gather data from various sources. Any person other than a real consumer can collect information (i.e. secondary information). Accordingly, it refers to the data resources gathered and analyzed by others. Adequate research evidence would not be provided by primary sources of knowledge including journals, newspapers, papers, or other findings that are either publicized or unpublished. Secondly, results gathered in various publications already obtained and tested by another scientist, along with quantitative data, are adequately tested, requested and observed. To compile this study, data were obtained using a secondary data collection method from a variety of sources such as different publications in various online databases.
Qualitative analysis is based on evidence derived from observations, interactions, questionnaires, focus groups, observational participants, natural settings recordings, papers, and objects. In addition, the results are not numerical. Ethnology, grounded philosophy, discourse research and phenomenological analysis interpretive includes qualitative approaches. In history, anthropology, political studies, psychology, social work and educational analysis, high-quality research was used. Qualitative scholars analyze the perception of their social reality through individuals. Qualitative data analysis is described as a process by which interview recordings, remarks or entirely different non-textual materials are constantly looked at and composed, accumulated by the investigator to improve the interpretation of a case. The method of analyzing qualitative data includes mainly the writing or classification of facts. It consists in the first place of making sense of vast volumes of data, decreasing the quantity of raw data, and then drawing concrete insight, and finally constructing rational patterns. An interpretation of quality data involves several arbitrary annotations, several approximations and characteristics. In comparison, an overview of a broader record & find category is the purpose of qualitative data analysis in comparing multiple decisions concerning the matter. A qualitative data review process for secondary data sources was developed for this research. In the first quarter interview, participants volunteered information on drinking before and throughout pregnancy. Information was also collected on the pattern of use, frequency, volume and kind of alcohol. Women having an alcohol history were deemed exposed within 4 months before the interview. Information on binge beverage frequency, considered to consume five or more drinks at any time, was also collected. The Researcher has evaluated the bivariate maternal differences among females with planned and unplanned pregnancies employing the x2 test. Mean and median alcohol intake was derived from the first quarter interview, as the average number of drinks a week. If a change in the pattern of alcohol use in the study participant was reported over this period, the average and median consumption was computed for before and after the change, taking into consideration the weeks during which the change in consumption was notified. The independent relationship of pregnancy intention with early pregnancy alcohol consumption was investigated using single and multivariable logistic regression models.
Figure 1: Gantt Chart
(Source: Created by Author)
It is essential to include respondents voluntarily in the study. In addition, participants have the opportunity, if they want, to withdraw from the research at any point. Informed consent should allow the respondents to participate. Educated consent includes researchers giving adequate information and guarantees of involvement to enable people, without any pressures or coercion, to comprehend the consequences of involvement and to make a completely informed, deliberate and voluntary choice as to whether to do so. To investigate if pregnant women are less likely than non-pregnant women to consume alcohol throughout early pregnancy. The initiative was attacked by women, the media, policy experts, foreign health analysts and medical professionals as a sponsor of social engineering and raised concerns about the priority of enhanced contraceptive availability and absence of regulative data on normal behaviour.
Pregnancy intention was evaluated using the intention of pregnancy questions developed by the CDC during a mother enrolment interview. A pregnancy was regarded to occur when the participant said that at some point in her life she wants to have a baby or another kid, and she got pregnant “around the correct time” or later than she wished. Pregnancies deemed sooner or not fully wanted were categorized as unintentional. In the first and enrolment telephone interviews, maternal demographic, reproductive and behavioural data were gathered. Covariates determined, a priori, by literature review and biologic plausibility, are composed of motherhood education level (either high school or lower, some college or college graduate) motherhood, race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, other), marital status (marital, other), body mass index of the first trimester, maternal vitamin use, spontaneous and another history.
As mentioned by Fergie et al. (2019), Genetic or chromosome abnormalities may cause congenital defects such as systemic and cognitive disorders, sensitivity to toxins, or certain diseases during pregnancy. Several other risk factors, including folate deficiencies, alcohol or smoking in pregnancy, poorly regulated diabetes, maternal age > 35 and socioeconomic status were identified. A recognised condition of the fetal alcohol spectrum is a consequence of mild or excessive sensitivity to alcohol during conception. In the fetus, maternal substance abuse induces defects of the liver, central deterioration of the nervous system, and deficits in body formation. 3 Prenatal Substance consumption has the most notable impact on the developing brain and the related cognitive and behavioural changes. The ingestion of maternal alcohol was often considered to lead to many other congenital disorders, including congenital heart defects (CHD), cleft lips (OFC); congenital limb defects; irregularities in the kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract (Stephenson et al. 2018). However, the exact association between the intake of maternal alcohol during breastfeeding is still inconclusive. This thesis is an observatory that uses a cohort study in the field of medicine to estimate how life events occur in a particular community. This kind of experiments is normally observed for a long time. Another explanation is that the analysis was not permitted to intervene with the sample, but rather to respect the ideals when they occur naturally. Data were recorded after childhood and during this analysis, no variables were deliberately affected or manipulated. In the retrospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, students gathered data concerning alcohol use at pregnancy week 15 from questionnaires. Data on preterm birth were also collected from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Until gestation weeks 37, preterm deliveries were detected as infantile. Doherty et al. (2019) commented that a postal invitation was provided to participants after signing up for the regular ultrasound examination in their nearest hospital. Received more detail from Norway’s Medical Birth Registry on forms and data gathered during birth and hospitalization of participants. Each participant gave informed consent to the report. The techniques used to gather the data for this research were suitable since they were empirical study.
Fetal growth and maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy
As per the viewpoint of Reynolds et al. (2019), Mothers who drank during both their deliveries included 17 per cent and others who drank during at least a pregnancy accounted for 29 per cent of the study. Mothers who drank were more likely to be white and more qualified during their first pregnancy and less likely to be bad. Mothers who didn’t drink at all or who only drank during those births have been African-American and Hispanic, with a lower rate of education. Drinking moms demonstrated greater marital harmony but were more prone to smoke during their pregnancy. Mothers who have modified their alcohol habits are less likely to have endured short-term poverty in healthy environments (Campbell and Shackleton, 2018). Mothers who drink during birth appeared to have offspring with somewhat lower positive and challenge ratings. Kids born to mothers who didn’t drink were more frightened than children born to mothers who did drink. In the specific model for OLS, a lower positive outlook and higher levels of difficulty were involved in drinking during breastfeeding. Prenatal drinking did not affect the anxiety of infants. No longitudinal factors for maternal children are strongly linked to the results of baby behaviour. However, there are good predictors of child behaving results of such maternal cognitive and behavioural abilities. No association between light to moderate drinking and low weight was established, but a high risk of giving birth to a child with low weight was enhanced by the mothers who drank heavily while pregnant. In the course of pregnancy, maternal smoking was often linked with a greater risk of an infant getting no birth weight.
Pregnant womens reported receipt of care and associated characteristics
The stigma of alcohol use during breastfeeding creates a significant likelihood of self-report underestimation. Data crashed into weekly intake by even alcohol-drinkers, decreasing the capacity to estimate binge-drinking versus lower drink amounts each day. The data contained was restricted to a homogenous Japanese community, which seems to be genetically susceptible to alcohol intolerance, which has presumably been ‘choice by persons with low overall predator nets and who cannot handle alcohol (4.2 per cent) (Garbers et al. 2020). In addition, people with a history of negative pregnancy findings might be less prone to ingest drugs, but premature results are more susceptible to bio stating against the abstainers regardless of their pregnancy histories. While women with an earlier premature birth were omitted, no further detail on maternity background or obstetrical risk factors was given. This precise confounding may be tackled with a sensitivity study to see if observing results persist among nulliparas, especially among light drinkers or those with uncomplicated past pregnancies.
The report detailed the effects on early developmental results of fetal alcohol exposure. Also, the findings found that the usage of mom’s alcohol in child problems was harmful to mild to moderate drinking. In comparison, there is no significant correlation between prenatal alcohol susceptibility and anxiety and a positive approach to children. The study further shows that maternal sensitivity has a greater effect on child difficulty than infant birth weight. The study, though, has many restrictions. The study consists first of all of the children born into very old mothers who restricted the analysis topics to children born between 1986 and 2000. The impact of maternal alcohol during breastfeeding is further assessed by this technique. Secondly, sibling research results should not generalize to children without siblings. Reynolds et al. (2017) commented that thirdly, the results of the study in different countries and societies may not be widespread. Finally, mothers are subjective of mother-to-mother grades and may vary between mothers. The findings of this study should be seen by including more evidence of the link between the consumption of prenatal drink and problems in early life periods in the behaviour of children to extend the scope of previous studies. The findings also provide data that may have significant public policy effects, as the results show that interventions to reduce maternal drinking during pregnancy can contribute to improved weeing of children’s behaviour.
Finally, the principle of evolutionary processes provides an opportunity to understand how different interactions and circumstances influence the use of alcohol at birth. In supporting civic understanding programmers, traditional public health approaches have been focused. For women who fight by breastfeeding, the ability to use alcohol to deal with their problem needs therapeutic tools that allow them to develop effective coping strategies. Tactics can be more beneficial than sensitivity alone, including urging a partner, relatives and others to support a pregnant woman’s decision to refrain. In addition, education drink warning camps in news media are tied to a better awareness of the risks of drinks during breastfeeding and of alcohol intake damages during birth. The findings of the research provide valuable data about whether alcohol intakes and behavioural conditions are associated with breastfeeding. The general process for the development of human growth is affected by behavioural dysfunction in children as a result of maternal alcohol sensitivity.
In a non-clinical interview, the researcher tried to reduce memory distortion by collecting the exposure information in the early stage of pregnancy. The self-reporting intention of pregnancy is another significant restriction. Some women may not originally want a pregnancy but have reported a desired pregnancy after pregnancy. Finally, several moms did not give comprehensive information on alcohol use and its amount and frequency. This research gives unique insights into pregnant women’s alcohol use habits. The research looks forward to the use of maternal alcohol during and throughout the initial phase of preconception in contrast to prior research. This cohort was also made up of a significant number of pregnancies, giving women who want to be pregnant a unique capacity to see alcohol consumption. The findings indicate that, regardless of the purpose of pregnancy, the majority of women stop or reduce their drinking after positive pregnancy tests, as part of public health strategies. This means that increasing early knowledge of pregnancy by testing the predicted menses may be a better approach than advocating alcohol abstinence among all the pregnant women who can conceive. Last but not least does not seem to be accomplished, although firstly, alcohol intake is rather slow. Any remaining use or assessment of high-risk behaviours, such as low-level drinking and binge drinking, can then become a focus of early clinical meetings and not only those perceived as high risk based on socio-economic traditional risk markers for poor pregnancy outcomes but must therefore be extended to all pregnant women… Another major public health effort is to reduce undesired pregnancies and to do this via better contraception availability, better counselling and preventive advice.
Synthetization of the proposed study
The research gives more detail on the effect of prenatal sensitivity to alcohol on early developmental outcomes. Also, for mild to moderate drinking, the results showed a detrimental impact of mom’s alcohol use on child difficulties. There is, by contrast, no substantial link between sensitivity to prenatal alcohol and childhood optimistic attitude and anxiety. Moreover, the research reveals that prenatal exposure has a larger impact than infant birth weight on infant difficulty (RaymentJones et al. 2019). However, the thesis has several limitations. First of all, the sample comprises of children born in comparatively old moms by limiting the topics of the research to children born between 1986 and 2000. This sampling technique will result in a more cautious assessment of the effects of maternal alcohol during pregnancy. Secondly, the findings of sibling analysis do not generalize without siblings to infants. Third, research findings might not be widespread in various countries and cultures.
Finally, maternal ratings of child behaviour, which can differ between mothers, are arbitrary. The results of this research may be used for broadening the focus of previous studies by presenting additional proof of the connection of prenatal alcohol intake to early life-cycles behavioural issues of offspring. The results also include evidence that can have important public policy consequences as the results imply that strategies aimed at reducing maternal drinking during pregnancy may lead to better behavioural weeing for children. Finally, the theory for ecological systems offers a basis for explaining how various interactions and environmental conditions affect the usage of alcohol in childbirth. Traditional public health interventions have been based on advocacy programmers on the public understanding (Barton et al. 2019). Women who are struggling through breastfeeding should be provided with psychological resources that help them establish efficient coping mechanisms to avoid feeling they need to use alcohol to address their issues. The tactics may prove more advantageous than increase awareness alone, such as encouraging husband, family and others to endorse the decision of a pregnant woman to abstain. Furthermore, educational drinking alert camps in the news media are linked to increasing understanding of the effects of beverage during breastfeeding, and the damage of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (Iranpour and Nakhaee, 2019). The study results offer important evidence about the connection between pregnancy alcohol intake and offspring behavioural disorders. Compartmental disorders in infants as a consequence of maternal sensitivity to alcohol influence the general developmental mechanism of human growth.
Mixed outcomes were shown by individual research of abstention or decrease of alcohol in pregnancies. There have nevertheless been promises and proposals to urge women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy via psychological and educational intervention. The evidence on the impact of these treatments on mothers and their infants was limited to follow up. No research has shown that alcohol intake in the intervention group has increased. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments to respond to moms who rely on alcohol are among these potentially beneficial treatments. Ultrasound feedback, home visits, telephone help and other actions on public health pledge to heavy drinkers regularly. Although little data is supporting ABIs in this prenatal context, it is important to know why ABIs should be provided in this context. APIs may do good not only for the mother but also for the growing fetal as regards ethical values. They were fair to screen and give an ABI to every pregnant woman and were sustainable due to their fast delivery and cheap cost of implementation after their first training. Some current statistics show the variations in drinking habits across various demographic groupings. For example, more wealthy moms tend more often to drink alcohol than moms who are at disadvantage, and women from various ethnic groups use less alcohol due to their cultural and/or religious belief than the population.
There is little evidence of how alcohol intake during pregnancy is reduced. Currently, psychological and educational treatments are most promising, including short counsel and motivating approaches. The inconsequential outcome, the lack of research, the number of participants, the high risk of research bias and the complexity of procedures restrict the capacity of the pregnant women to identify the kind of intervention most efficacious for promoting abstention or decreasing the use of alcohol. These constraints underline the necessity for more rigorous research in this field. Psychological and educational measures are promising since they may decrease alcohol use during pregnancy. There is, however, no evidence of the effect on mother and/or newborn health of these treatments with existing results contradictory. There is no substantial difference between intervention groups and nonintervention groups. Other treatments such as assistance via telephone, ultrasound feedback, intervention on public health and home visits shown no change in the use of alcohol during pregnancy for women who drink heavily regularly. There is no evidence of the efficacy of psycho-social and/or pharmaceutical measures in responding to pregnant women with alcohol dependence. Because there is limited data on the efficacy of the measures, more research is needed in all three areas.
Barton, K., Redshaw, M., Quigley, M.A. and Carson, C., 2017. Unplanned pregnancy and subsequent psychological distress in partnered women: a cross-sectional study of the role of relationship quality and wider social support. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 17(1), pp.1-9.
Campbell, T. and Shackleton, N., 2018. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and breastfeeding initiation, early cessation and longevity: evidence from the first wave of the UK Millennium Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 72(12), pp.1124-1131.
Doherty, E., Wiggers, J., Wolfenden, L., Anderson, A.E., Crooks, K., Tsang, T.W., Elliott, E.J., Dunlop, A.J., Attia, J., Dray, J. and Tully, B., 2019. Antenatal care for alcohol consumption during pregnancy: pregnant womens reported receipt of care and associated characteristics. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 19(1), pp.1-17.
Fergie, L., Campbell, K.A., Coleman-Haynes, T., Ussher, M., Cooper, S. and Coleman, T., 2019. Identifying effective behaviour change techniques for alcohol and illicit substance use during pregnancy: a systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 53(8), pp.769-781.
Garbers, S., Falletta, K.A., Srinivasulu, S., Almonte, Y., Baum, R., Bermudez, D., Coriano, M., Iglehart, K., Mota, C., Rodriguez, L. and Taveras, J., 2020. If You Don’t Ask, I’m Not Going to Tell You: Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Inform Pregnancy Intention Screening Processes for Black and Latina Women in Primary Care. Women’s Health Issues, 30(1), pp.25-34.
Grant, A., Morgan, M., Mannay, D. and Gallagher, D., 2019. Understanding health behaviour in pregnancy and infant feeding intentions in low-income women from the UK through qualitative visual methods and application to the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour) model. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 19(1), pp.1-16.
Hill, B., Kothe, E.J., Currie, S., Danby, M., Lang, A.Y., Bailey, C., Moran, L.J., Teede, H., North, M., Bruce, L.J. and Skouteris, H., 2019. A systematic mapping review of the associations between pregnancy intentions and health-related lifestyle behaviours or psychological wellbeing. Preventive medicine reports, 14, p.100869.
Iranpour, A. and Nakhaee, N., 2019. A review of alcohol-related harms: A recent update. Addiction & health, 11(2), p.129.
Kingsland, M., Doherty, E., Anderson, A.E., Crooks, K., Tully, B., Tremain, D., Tsang, T.W., Attia, J., Wolfenden, L., Dunlop, A.J. and Bennett, N., 2018. A practice change intervention to improve antenatal care addressing alcohol consumption by women during pregnancy: research protocol for a randomised stepped-wedge cluster trial. Implementation Science, 13(1), pp.1-14.
Lim, A.W., Van Schalkwyk, M.C., Maani Hessari, N. and Petticrew, M.P., 2019. Pregnancy, fertility, breastfeeding, and alcohol consumption: An analysis of framing and completeness of information disseminated by alcohol industryfunded organizations. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 80(5), pp.524-533.
RaymentJones, H., Harris, J., Harden, A., Khan, Z. and Sandall, J., 2019. How do women with social risk factors experience United Kingdom maternity care? A realist synthesis. Birth, 46(3), pp.461-474.
Reynolds, C.M., Egan, B., McMahon, L., OMalley, E.G., Sheehan, S.R. and Turner, M.J., 2019. Maternal obesity trends in a large Irish university hospital. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 238, pp.95-99.
Reynolds, C.M., Egan, B., OMalley, E.G., McMahon, L., Sheehan, S.R. and Turner, M.J., 2019. Fetal growth and maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 236, pp.148-153.
Reynolds, C.M.E., Egan, B., McKeating, A., Daly, N., Sheehan, S.R. and Turner, M.J., 2017. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-), 186(4), pp.971-979.
Rosenberg, G., Bauld, L., Hooper, L., Buykx, P., Holmes, J. and Vohra, J., 2018. New national alcohol guidelines in the UK: public awareness, understanding and behavioural intentions. Journal of Public Health, 40(3), pp.549-556.
Shawe, J., Patel, D., Joy, M., Howden, B., Barrett, G. and Stephenson, J., 2019. Preparation for fatherhood: a survey of mens preconception health knowledge and behaviour in England. PLoS One, 14(3), p.e0213897.
Stephenson, J., Heslehurst, N., Hall, J., Schoenaker, D.A., Hutchinson, J., Cade, J.E., Poston, L., Barrett, G., Crozier, S.R., Barker, M. and Kumaran, K., 2018. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health. The Lancet, 391(10132), pp.1830-1841.
Stephenson, J., Vogel, C., Hall, J., Hutchinson, J., Mann, S., Duncan, H., Woods-Townsend, K., de Lusignan, S., Poston, L., Cade, J. and Godfrey, K., 2019. Preconception health in England: a proposal for annual reporting with core metrics. The Lancet, 393(10187), pp.2262-2271.
Sundermann, A.C., Edwards, D.R.V., Slaughter, J.C., Wu, P., Jones, S.H., Torstenson, E.S. and Hartmann, K.E., 2021. Week-by-week alcohol consumption in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion risk: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 224(1), pp.97-e1.
Are you a high school, college, or university student pursuing a diploma, bachelors, master’s, or Ph.D. degree? Sometimes, assignments and life can overwhelm you.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
That is where we step in. Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! With our student assignment help service, you can submit all your assignment on time and score superb grades. You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Our academic writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an academic writer with our assignment help service is to have a college bachelors degree. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the writers area of specialization.
We offer student assignment help on various subjects. These include:
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver a perfect paper. It will also help to avoid unnecessary revisions. At this point, you can attach files that are provided for the assignment. We usually insist a lot on the client uploading the grading rubric if it is available. The writers adhere to the highest level of the rubric to ensure that you get a perfect grade.
Proceed to securely pay for the paper so that we can assign the paper to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writers area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer.
The paper is uploaded to your personal account and sent to your email. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more