Management Theories and Philosophies
Royalco Resources Limited (Royalco) has been engaged in the management of the resources based on the royalties and the exploration of mineral tenements that are located in the UK. The business established in the year 1929 to manufactured the mining appliances for diverse mines around the United Kingdom. Royalco Resources Limited survived the world war through numerous recessions (Boyett & Boyett, 1998-page 34). The organizations adopted the hybrid of the classically and scientifically managed the theory for a couple of years, this has been proved to be successful with the popular processes that have not yielded the growth of reputation through the surrounding areas. The financial rewards are perfect as the workers provide the efforts through the achievements of the endeavors.
The division of the workers led to the foundation of the levels of business that grow and succeed under the control and supervision of the management (Cole & Kelly, p. 2011 p. 67). These features sum the philosophical aspects of the classical management theories. According to Professor Edgar Schein, he states “People are predominantly motivated by social needs, and finding their identity through relationships with others. Acceptance of this view by managers means more attention to people’s needs and less to the task in needs.” Cole, 1993, p. 28). This has led to the commencement and the ridging the process of the workers negligence favoring different targets that are abandoned. It has been noted that motivation need to be implicated to avoid
The workers responsibilities include the positioning within the organization in pursuit of the change of their thinking way. The amount of work and the output gained is because of the bonus reached in the achievement of a certain goal.
Management Philosophies and Motivation
Management philosophy is a set of foundation of a positive work climate and the influence of a manager’s approach of motivation, the way in which a manager views the employees and communicates with them determines the features that affect their behaviors. The two main theories that describe management include the Douglas McGregory Theory X and Theory Y, which discusses the opportunity in which managers view their employees’ treatment by their managers (Dahlgaard, 2000 page67). The next theory that implicates the philosophies of management is the Chris Argyris that focuses on the mature worker. In the book Personality and Organization, Argyris contrasts the management practices found in the traditional organization based on their needs and capabilities of the adult personality. The concepts of work specialization motivate people to undertake their tasks in a defined manner. This concept believed to be counterproductive based on the aspect that limits the employee from reaching their self-actualization goals (Boyett, & Boyett, 1998-page 56). Argyris focuses on how the managers treat their employees and he believes that the positive treatment of the managers in a positive perspective enables managers to be productive. He believes that mature workers posses additional responsibilities with a couple of tasks aligned to them.
The high levels of the employees’ motivation occur from the efficient methods of practice. To develop the motivation of the employees, a manager should treat the individuals in a way that they are empowered and an effective reward redesigned with a creation of a comfortable environment.
The empowerment of employees occurs when the individuals realize about the issuing with the autonomy of authority and trust in the accomplishment of a certain task. Empowerment designed in a way that favors the workers and makes the jobs to seem as the workers responsibility. In the attempt of changing the bureautic ideas, the managers promoted to various levels based on the corporate ideas of the entrepreneurship. This encourages employees to advance the new ideas and it gives them the authority to promote those specific ideas.
Providing an effective reward system
Managers often reinforce the employees’ behavior through the reinforcement of the employees behaviors in which they continue. A reward is a work outcome that has the positive values of the individuals. The organizations often reward the rich people through the performance accomplishments that aid the people to meet their organizational features. People usually receive the rewards them in diverse ways;
These are the rewards administered to the employees based on the valued outcomes given by the supervisors and the manager. The examples of the common places of work is based on the bonuses, promotions, time off, special assignments, office fixtures and the verbal interactions. In majority of the cases, the motivational stimulus of the extrinsic rewards originates from outside the individuals.
These rewards occur through the mode of self-determination that is naturally high; a person may experience the results after the completion of job. The individuals feel good because of the competency development and self-control over their work. On the extrinsic rewards, the motivational stimulus of the rewards in the internal management depends on the actions of the people. To motivate the behavior, the organization needs to provide the effective rewards system have the following elements.
I. Rewards need to fulfill the basic need of the employees.
II. Rewards need incorporation in the system that is comparable to the one offered by the competitive organization in the area.
III. Rewards need to be available to all the individuals of the same positions due to fair and equitable distribution.
IV. The general reward structure needs to be comprehensive due to the diverse personalities of individuals. The managers should provide the range of rewards that motivates promotion. The managers should provide the diverse ways of earning rewards.
The last point is worth recognition as there are widely developing trend towards the empowerment of the American industries. The employees and employers are beginning to view the traditional pay systems that are inadequate. The traditional systems have the individual’s payment according to the position they occupy and the contribution they make. The organizations adopt the approaches built upon the team’s comprehensiveness, diverse customer satisfaction, and their empowerment, as they need to be frequently paid. Many companies have already responded to the designing of various pay plans. The manager has the duty of outlining the workers accountability, according to Taylor’s (1947, 1911) he stated “every individuals labor should be designed using a scientific analysis of that work. That manager coordinates their workers’ activities in order that the tasks to be done are in fact completed.” Linstead, Fulop & Lilley, P.69) These develop through the employees’ team designs rewarding their skill levels. The rewards given to the employees show that their behaviors are appropriate and they require exemplification. When the employees feel that their work is appreciated, their enthusiasm develops.
Majority of the people encounter similar shortcomings while performing their duties. The individuals often refer to these conditions as burnouts. In addition, the majority of the cases depict that smart managers are the reluctant in performing different duties before the employees become bored and eventually lose their motivation (TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. 2006. Pg 58). This concept of job redesign aims at acquiring the knowledge and concern of the human qualities. The individuals bring with them the ability applying the motivational theories in their structure work structure, with the aim of improving the productivity and satisfaction. When designing the jobs, the managers consider the job scope and the depth of the job. The redesign attempts aim at the following,
This is known as the horizontal job loading, this job process increases the variety of tasks that a job includes. The quality and challenges of the tasks depends on the reduction of the monotony of the employees decrease. This means that the quality of the work increases generally.
This practice indicates that people have different jobs and tasks based on their temporary personalities. The main idea of the rotation is to add variety and build people based on their job kind. The job rotation method encourages high levels of contribution through the renewal of interest and enthusiasm. The organizational benefit focuses on the cross-trained workforce.
The application includes high risks and diverse tasks that motivate the employee to have responsibility and authority. When the skills are required, the job aims to hold the jobholders abilities and the job enrichment providing the morale and performance.
The employees value their personal time through the family needs leading to a traditional workday that may not please everyone. The flextime allows employees to set and control their working hours, controlling the organizations accommodation of the employees need (JONES, G., & ZEITLIN, J. (2008 pg. 66). There are diverse options that organizations implicate to fulfill their goals.
I. The compressed workweek has a form of flextime that allows the fulltime job completion in an estimate of forty hours through the five-day workweek. This schedule favors the individuals through more leisure and less abseintseem, improving their performances. The main shortcoming of this scheduling is the exposure to increased fatigue.
II. Job sharing also known as twinning occurs when the full-time workload splits between two or more people. Individuals work half a day, or weekly based on the sharing arrangements. Split and sharing of the jobs leads to the organizations benefit, as talented individuals who are unable to work on a fulltime basis get an employment chance. Although adjustment problems occur, the arrangement of a proper schedule is required.
III. Telecommuting also known as the flexiplace, is a working condition that allows the least portion of the scheduled work to be completed outside the office, with the work-at-home as the only option (DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. 2000 page87). This strategy influences the jobholder based on the need of observance of the work fixed hours, dressing in distinct work attire, enduring the normal limitations of commuting, and having unswerving contact with the administrator. The Home workers often encounter increased productivity, in which they report minimal distractions, enjoy the sovereignty of directing themselves, and appreciating the advantage of having more time by themselves (CRAINER, S. 2000 page78). The presence of positive factors indicates that even the negatives are present. Majority of the home workers feel that they work too much leading to the isolation of their friends and family members. The additional feelings of loneliness encompass them making them to lack visibility at their offices because of low promotions.
Motivational Theories: Behavior
This theory explains how the workers behave to meet their needs and their determined choices. This theory offers advice and motivation to the people while they make choices. The decision of working hard depends on the individual preferences, availability of rewards, and the possible outcomes.
According the equity theory, based on the work of J. Stacy Adams principles, the worker gives and compares their rewards to the implicated efforts. The equity that exists when the workers perceive their equal efforts is illustrated in the diagram below.
Employee’s underestimation of their potential rewards, indicates that they compare their abilities with that of their colleagues. The feeling of inequality occurs when people believe that their rewards are mediocre to the rewards offered to the people sharing similar workloads. The employees who have the feeling of unfair treatment, exhibit the following insecure behaviors:
I. Put minimal attempt into their jobs
II. Ask for better treatment and/or rewards
III. Find ways to make their work seem better by comparison
IV. Transfer or quit their jobs
The equity theory focuses on the individuals behaviors based on diverse perceptions. The manager considers the irrelevance of an employee before they raise a real issue based on the employee perceptions of the organizational factors. The rewards perceived include the equitable positive positions that arise because of their job performances and the satisfaction experienced. These rewards are inequitable, as they tend to create the job dissatisfaction and cause adverse problems on their performances.
The equity theory illustrates point whereby people react depending on their perceptions and beliefs. The manager considers the irrelevant acts of an employee, as the real issues of the employees comprise their situations. The rewards perceived are equal to the positive results of the job. Managers ensure the avoidance of all negative consequences based on the rewards allocated to diverse individuals (TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. 2006. Pg 76). The informed managers anticipate on the perception of negative inequalities when the rewards become visible, these include issues like increased rates of promotion occurring to different executives. The leering equity is concerned with issuing the position at hand with the managers so that they can be clarified in accordance to their performance appraisals on the reward-based categories.
Victor Vroom introduced this theory as one of the widely accepted explanation of motivation. It elaborates the rate at which the employees are motivated to exert effort in which they believe that:
I. Efforts result to good performance appraisal.
II. A good appraisal leads to the organizational rewards.
III. The organizations reward individuals with the aim of satisfying their personal goals.
The main expectancy theory aims at understanding a specific individual’s goal and the relationship they entail of based on the effort and performance. These two factors are inclusive of the high levels of expectancy and an attractive reward, motivation depends on the high rates of intake (JONES, G., & ZEITLIN, J. (2008 pg. 76). To motivate the employees, the managers strengthen their works accountability by unifying them using the available chances. The clarification of the performances makes sure that the rewards provided are desirable.
This theory describes the E.L Thorndike’s law of effect, based on the relationship between the behavior of the employees and its consequences. The theory focuses on the modification of the employee based on their job behavior. There are various techniques implicated in the theory;
I. Positive reinforcement has a rewarding behavior that results to a raise on the promotion considering the positive behavior of the individuals with the intention of an increased probability of the repeated desired behavior.
II. Employees are disqualified if they indulge in improper behaviors. The avoidance of the negative attributes gives an insight of the employee’s behaviors.
III. Extinction occurs through ignorance of the behaviors that are sub-ordinate and that lack the positive or negative reinforcements on the arising issues. The classroom teachers use the technique of ignoring the students who act in a manner that limits their attention. This technique perceives the temporary behaviors that are not typical and serious.
IV. Punishment includes threats, docking pay and suspension in an attempt to minimize the likelihood of behavior that recurs through the application of the negative consequences.
The reinforcement theory has the following implications on management,
I. Learning the acceptable factors of the organization leading to an influence of motivated behaviors.
II. Managers try to motivate their employees by informing them of the wrong doings and ensuring that they are careful when rewarding all the individuals.
III. Managers inform the individuals on the frequently received positive reinforcements.
IV. The managers administer the reinforcement closely to avoid the occurrence of problems.
V. Managers should motivate the individuals to receive positive reinforcement.
VI. All the managers make sure that they administer the reinforcement as close as possible to prevent the occurrences of certain behaviors.
VII. The managers have recognized the failure of rewarding and modifying the behavior. The employees who have the perception of recognizing the aspects of failure become close to the managers and the companies.
Goal Setting Theory
Edwin Locke introduced this theory in the late 1960s; based on the intentions aimed towards achieving certain goal of the organization as a major source of motivation. The goals have the essence of informing the employees about the need that need to have implicated and the efforts required for their expansion (COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. 2011-page 78). The difficult goals occupy the first priority based on the level of performance. Managers can set goals for their employees and together they merge to form a successful team. The advantage of the employee participation based on the goal setting, is to ensure that the whole team works towards a same goal. There are for main factors that contribute to the goal-performance relationship.
I. Employees committing themselves aiming at a specific goal
II. The employees have a perception that they are capable of performing different tasks
III. The tasks involve the achievement of simple and familiar responsibilities.
IV. The goal-establishing theory is a culture that is recognized and popular in North Americas Culture.
The exemplification of the theory illustrates that the managers need to work with their employees in a cooperative manner to ensure that the targeted goals of the organization are fulfilled (DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. 2000 page99). The established goals should to be specific instead of having a general nature, as it ensures that the managers provide a positive feedback based on their employees performances.
History and Evolution of Modern Management
The history of management based on the practices has changed through the management of the history practices such as the construction of the Ancient Egyptians Pyramids. Management has evolved from the classical management philosophies involving the bureautic management and the scientific management, which has laid emphasis on the efficiency of the routines and the structures of the neoclassic philosophies. These factors have emphasized on the behaviorism and the public relations. The modern society focuses on the strategies, leadership, and the people.
Classical Era Management Philosophies
During the beginning of the classical philosophies established through the encompassed scientific revolution based on the managerial approaches. As industrialization developed, the organizations became large and the competition increased. The industrialization continues to become large and competition has increased. Greenleaf depicts “The servant leader asks questions that help uncover what he or she can do to help. How might I be of help? What is it that you need from me? What resources do I have that would be of use to you?” (Boyett & Boyett 1998) .The availability of a professional management of the workers, results to a successful business environment. The competition has increased due to the standardization and the productivity of the efficiency marked from the beginning of the management theories analyzed currently.
The alignment of aims and purposes of management are the fundamental aspects of a successful management. The organizations alignment and personal association results to the fulfillment of their aims and it also serves as a platform for motivation (Boyett, J.H., & Boyett, J.H. 1998-page 86). Various individuals find the process to be difficult due to the execution of the organizational aims, leading to a better platform for the motivation chance. Motivation is a broad aspect that is diverse according to different people.
According to Erik Erikson, the understanding of different motivational needs occurs to the life stages of an individual. The experimental learning focuses on the demotivational training that aid in the facilitation of the experimental learning activities. The motivational receptiveness aims at changing the potential of all the situations (CRAINER, S. 2000 page89). The alignment of the values of the right motivational methods sort the individual changes on a daily basis based on the situations they encounter. These methods encompass of the work that individuals and organizations indulge in, and how they can be executed to achieve certain goals (COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. 2011-page 98). According to the changing times, people want more of the motivational methods and structural ideas that lay a solid foundation for the organization. The foundation has a cohesive alignment of the people’s needs and values aimed at improving the organization. The foundation of the cohesive alignment of the individuals need focuses on the values and purposes of the organization.
Motivational Methods and Theory
Motivation is provided in diverse ways, ranging from poems, quotes, posters, motivational speakers and stories. These develop the employees’ motivation for sales and the business staff in all types of organization (JONES, G., & ZEITLIN, J. (2008 pg. 98). The motivation and inspiration has experiences that improve the attitudes and the performances of an organization. It is the most essential part of the life coaching processes and techniques that make individuals increase their performances. Motivation leads to the development of mutual respect, for example when people enjoy the events of the non-working activities that is included in their work schedule. People are motivated to improve their workability and the experiences of the success feelings and achievement regardless of the context. All the ideas discussed provide a motivational achievement that inspires individuals to continue working and this improve their performances (TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. 2006. Pg 98). The theories occur based on team building and activities such as juggling, positive images in stories, inspirational posters and quotations.
Icebreakers and Warm-ups for Motivation
This is evident among a group of people who assemble for a certain conference or training course. When people are conversant with each other it becomes easier for them to relate and indulge in diverse activities together. Games and team building activities refresh people making them to relax so that they can concentrate fully on their main areas of work. These activities are levelers that diminish the barriers and aid in the development of rapports and relationships.
Building Conference for Motivation
This makes sure that the individuals learn new skills through the liberation of their minds. This factor aims at building the enthusiasm of the executives through helping them master their confidences.
Motivational Team Building
Barriers, misunderstandings, prejudices, insecurities and hierarchies are a way of building the teams. A group of people forms a team that works together through the identification of the common purposes, creating competition among the members.
Motivational coaching and Training Motivation
Learning on how to juggle the same activities demonstrates the learning of the coaches. This leads to the breakage of the stages that provide clear instructions, demonstration, practices, time and spaces for clear instructions and the essential training and coaching. Games and several activities provide a perfect reason for the explanation of the development based on the training processes to the managers, team leaders and trainers.
Personal Motivation Styles and Learning Motivation
Individuals have diverse personalities, considering the games and activities of the work situations illustrate how different people posses different strengths and working capabilities through their working preferences. Mutual preferences develop when people use their skills and attributes to accomplish diverse issues.
Continual Development and Motivation
Learning occurs in new activities that demonstrate the learning and the ongoing activities. The lessons do not end; instead, individuals prefer to stop learning. The motivation of the individuals, staff and employees leads to new experiences that open the minds of the individuals creating points of personal development while emphasizing on the opportunity of continuous learning techniques.
Improving Empathy and Communication for Motivation
This means that through communication, there is the understanding among the people. Empathy and other intuitive skills occur on the right side of the brain (CRAINER, S. 2000 page90). The conventional classroom training and distance learning lead to the improvement of the vital areas in an organization. Juggling and other spontaneous games are helpful as they promote the development and awareness on the right side of the brain, this helps in the proper communication and understanding of the individuals. The team activities and games promote communication and mutual understanding that is essential for effective organizational performances.
Motivation and Creativity
These are the main capabilities of the modern organization effectiveness. Juggling and various games result to the conventional response of the stimulus. The most successful organizations have staffs that initiate, create and innovate the new ways that encourage pro-active thoughts and lateral thinking. This leads to the opening of the minds of the people as they develop new and initiative capabilities.
Motivation for Problem-solving and Decision-making
Problem explanation is the most vital part of decision-making. According to many individuals, learning of the juggle makes it to sound like a challenge to the stimulating activities that use the intuitive part of the brains to solve diverse problems. This part also has the vital aspects that create the solution of the problems. People who have the ability to critically solve problems and organize them can make wise decisions.
Physical activities of Motivation
The team building activities such as the juggling, exercises and other outdoor games, promote a good health for the energetic approach of the work. The physical activities provide significant stress management methods. These initiate the maintenance of a comfortable working condition in all the parts of the organization. People concentrate on the work that offers light exercises and the physical stimulus (COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. 2011-page 98). The physical activities energize people and minimize stress and tension. The inspirational quotes and amusing sayings are motivational when implicated in team building activities. They contribute to the motivation of individuals through the provision of role models that prompt visualization. They also stimulate the images of the brains both consciously and unconsciously.
The implication of the organizational goals leads to the creation of common objectives that extend towards supplying the integral products of the organization. The supply view is explained in two ways, both the input and output systems (TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. 2006. Pg 108). The inputs of the purchasers enable the supplier to have the motivation of delivering numerous goods. A particular products supplier shares the specification of the goods with their customers. This diminishes in the classical situations, as the supplier with no integral managerial skills allows the buyer to engage in fraud activities (Boyett, J.H., & Boyett, J.H. 1998-page 90). With the previous classical management, the Royalco Resources Limited failed to engage their suppliers in various levels of information that they passed to the upstream directions. The supplier awards the supply of the typical models and they focus on the purchasing manager and the establishment of the buyer of the right items at the right prices. This is achieved when specific criteria is used for quality expectations. On the secondary aspects, the supplier gives the products at a price that is 10% cheaper than the current standard price that sways to place a genuine order for the customers (COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. 2011-page 102).
List of references
BOYETT, J.H., & BOYETT, J.H. (1998). The guru guide: the best ideas of the top management thinkers. New York, J. Wiley.
COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. (2011). Management theory and practice. Australia, South-Western Cengage Learning.
CRAINER, S. (2000). The management century. San Francisco, Calif, Jossey-Bass.
DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. (2000). From ancient philosophies to TQM and modern management theories. Linko-ping, Business administration, Linko-pings universitet.
JONES, G., & ZEITLIN, J. (2008). The Oxford handbook of business history. Oxford [England], Oxford University Press.
SAUNDERS, M.J. (. (1997). Strategic purchasing and supply chain management. London, Financial Times Pitman.
TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. (2006). Higher education leadership and management: From conflict to interdependence through strategic planning. Tertiary Education and Management. 12, 137-160.
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