International Trade and Enterprise



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International Trade and Enterprise

final assessmeNt

Trimester t1, 2021


Assessment Weight: 50 total marks


  • All questions must be answered by using the answer boxes provided in this paper.
  • Completed answers must be submitted to Blackboard by the published due date and time.
  • Submission instructions are at the end of this paper.


This assessment consists of six (6) questions and is designed to assess your level of knowledge of the key topics covered in this unit

Question 1

( 7 marks)

The Gravity Model

  1. The gravity model of international trade is able to predict trade flows between two countries based on two principal factors.


Describe the gravity model specify the variables, use an example of Canada and the USA, or Mexico and the USA both situations where the gravity model has been found to be accurate.


ANSWER: ** Answer box will enlarge as you type

This model was traditionally used for studying the trade flows associate with the same for measuring the joint economic activity and costs of trade (Gupta et al. 2019, p.2, pp. 2). This model predicts that the volume of trade is directly associated with the GDP of each trading partner (country), however inversely proportional to the distance between them. In addition, distance and market size between markets determine how much nations buy and then sell, hence these transactions benefit both sellers and buyers. For example, countries tend for spending a large fraction of their income on non-traded goods and services as per the gravity model. This model influences the size of a nation’s economy on their trades and distance with other determinants that affect trade (Crowe, 2021, p.3).

For example, the two principal factors such as a country’s economic size and the distance between the country and its trading partner based on which predicting trade flows between nations such as Canada and the USA is to be carried out. Considering this trade between USA and Canada is found to be productive as per the two principals of each nation, for example, the market size of Canada is $1.88trillion and its GDP growth rate is 1.40, Canada is 10% of the US Market in Size and the US buys around 75% of Canada’s exports and further produces 50% of its imports. This reflects a productive trade between the US and Canada. The economys size of Canada, its GDP, its value of goods and services attract the US to trade with it. The import and export between the US and Canada can determine the size of the Canadian economy as it is directly proportional to the volume of the exports and imports. Furthermore, the US and Canada share the longest international border 5,525 miles, along with 120 land-ports-of-entry, and their bilateral relationship is one of the closet including extensive. This gets reflected in the high volume of bilateral trade of around 2billion dollar per day in goods and services, along with in people-to-people contact that is about 4200,000 people cross every day between the USA and Canada (U.S Department of State, 2020, pp. 1). Hence, as per the facts reflected by using the Gravity Model such as its economic size and distance between it and the US make it a perfect choice for the US to trade. Thus, Canada is the second-largest trading partner of goods for the US.

Question 2

(7 marks)

Absolute and Comparative Advantage

  1. Assume a world of two nations USA and Australia. The two nations produce machinery and agriculture. The USA can produce 160 units of machinery or 200 units of agriculture while Australia can produce 140 units of machinery or 50 units of agriculture, in the same time period.


  1. Define absolute advantage (1 mark)
  2. Which country, Australia or USA, has an absolute advantage in the production of agriculture and machinery? Explain the basis for your answer (3 marks)
  3. Which country Australia or USA – has a comparative advantage in production of machinery and agriculture? Define comparative advantage and explain how it applies in this example. (3 marks)


Absolute Advantage

Absolute advantage indicates the principle ability of a party towards producing goods and services more efficiently than its competitors. A country with an absolute advantage in producing goods enjoys a higher wage in that industry after trading (Crowe, 2021, p. 24). Absolute advantage mainly indicates superior production capability at a lower cost.

Country that has absolute advantage

Here, it is prominent that the USA is producing 160 units of machinery and 200 units of agriculture while Australia is generating 140 units of machinery and 50 units of agriculture. In this context, it can be said that Australia has an absolute advantage as the country has the ability to produce an amount of machinery and agriculture more efficiently than the USA. Although the production number is higher in the USA, it is the ability of Australia to grow the agricultural products and machinery in a more cost-effective manner and as Australia has the climate and environment for growing agricultural products, it increases the ability of its absolute advantage better than the USA. The alignment of absolute advantage with agriculture increases productivity in agriculture and decreases the employment share within that (Cuadrado, Amodio and Poschke, 2019, p. 1, pp. 1). Australia uses its resources for efficiency as compared to the USA which eventually reduces its production cost and labour cost. Therefore, though the production number is low, it is still an absolute advantage for Australia as it is reducing their cost for production by efficiently generating agriculture and machinery units.

A country that has a comparative advantage

In terms of producing agriculture and machinery, the USA has a comparative advantage as it uses resources more efficiently than others. It is mainly the advantage for the USA because the opportunity cost for producing both the goods is lower than other countries. The USA has the ability to generate an effective amount of machinery along with agricultural products because it has specialized capital-intensive labour. Moreover, each of the productions happens with a lower opportunity cost that eventually increases its comparative advantage for trading and obtaining cost benefits. It is also the comparative advantage of the USA because the country has the proper resources for making machinery and agricultural production. Therefore, when a country has its own set of resources for generating goods and products, it eventually reduces its production cost and also lowers the opportunity cost by increasing the advantage of obtaining much cost benefits from it. Therefore, it is prominent that the USA holds the comparative advantage better than Australia.


Question 3

(7 marks)

The Standard Model

The Standard Model of Trade is a general model that accommodates other models which reference specific sources of comparative advantage, e.g. Ricardian model (differences in labour effectiveness) and HeckscherOhlin model (references factors of production).


There are four key relationships upon which the Standard Model is based. Please list each of the four relationships and give one example for each.



The four pillars on which the respective model are based on production possibilities frontiers, indifferences curve and isovalue lines; these fit together for illustrating how the trade partners are established by combining the factors associated with demand-side and supply-side (Crowe, 2021, p.3). This model refers to a general model, which includes Hecksher-Ohlin and Ricardian models as specific cases such as two goods namely Food (F) and Cloth (C) and each of the trading countries PPF (Production Possibility Frontier) needs to be a smooth curve. For example, an economy having PPF at point TT would be producing at Q that is on the highest possible isovalue line

Figure 1: PPF for two products such as cloth and Food

(Source: Created by author)

Relative supply and relative prices, an increase in the price of cloth relative to the price of food makes an isovalue line steeper, where production gets shifted from Q1 to point Q2 and relative supply of the clothing products to food products gets increased with a relative price of cloth to food

Furthermore, differences in labour skills, labour services, technology, land and physical capital between trading countries cause differences in the possibility frontiers. For example, an indifference curve is always downward sloping; if production of cloth is less then it is a must to have more production of cloth to be equally satisfied. This curve lies farther from the origin making the consumers satisfied, which reflects that the volume of production of both the goods are more. However, the curve becomes flatter whenever there is a shift to right reflecting more cloth with less food, this means an additional yard of clothing becomes less valuable concerning how much calories of food, one can give up for cloth.

The PPF of a country determines their relative supply functions, for example, the value of consumption associated with a nation’s economy must be equal to the value of the productions associated with the same economy (Crowe, 2021, p.4). In the respective model, relative price converges as an outcome of the trade. For instance, if the cloth is relatively cheap in a home country and relatively costlier in a foreign country before a trade getting opened, then the effects of trade were for raising the cloth-related price in the home nation and reducing the same in the foreign country.

The functions of national relative supply determine functions of a world relative supply that along with the world relative demand determines the equilibrium under the international trade. For example, consumption choices are based on the relative price of products and preferences and the economy supplies cloth reflects that the quantity of cloth getting produced is exceeding the quality of cloth getting consumed, as a result, imports food. For instance, an economy exporting cloth is better off whenever the cloths price gets raised as compared to the price regarding food and a higher relative price of cloth reflects that more amounts of calories of food could be imported for each yard of the cloth getting exported.


Question 4


Controversies in Trade Policy


After the Seattle 1999 World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference, in the next two years, large anti-globalization demonstrations rocked the International Monetary Fund and World Bank in Washington.


Describe the role of WTO with respect to the following 7 aspects: knowledge of WTO/GATT, fostering trade liberalization, abolishing tariffs, increasing transparency, seeking resolutions, improving communication within trading blocs, controlling export subsidies, improving national welfare and competitiveness of developing countries (1 mark each)


Knowledge of WTO/GATT

In 1995, the World Trade Organisation was established as a formal organisation for establishing and implementing multilateral trade negotiations (Crowe, 2021, p. 24). In the WTO, GATT has also been established with the purpose of promoting international trading by reducing and eliminating a set of trade barriers such as quotas or traffic in this regard.

Fostering trade liberalization

Fostering trade liberalization has happened by the approach of WTO as it has developed three fundamental components such as the expansion of market by obtaining the conversion of non-traffic barriers to traffic, binding and reducing the barrier and reducing domestic trade-distorting. This eventually has ensured that the trade among international markets is liberal.

Abolishing tariffs

The establishment of WTO has been an effective achievement for international trading due to the liberalization and removal of trade barriers (Herbert, 2020, p. 48, pp. 4). WTO also has abolished trade barriers by playing its role through negotiation by the member governments. WTO also has encouraged countries to negotiate one agreement for reducing trade barriers that can generate benefits for both countries.

Increasing transparency

Promotion of transparency also has happened by domestically modifying laws, regulations and guidelines. In this process, the role of WTO was making those laws and guidelines established, predictable and open so that every country can make the trading information public and available among other countries for generating effective trading.

Seeking resolutions

In terms of seeking or disputing resolution, the member countries of WTO have developed the agreement that if any of the members under the trade agreement is violating the trade rules, the members will be using a multilateral system for settling the dispute and to seek resolution rather than making any unilateral action.

Improving communication within trading blocs

Improvement of communication among trading blocs also has happened by the role of WTO as the organisation has generated principles of trading and contracting among countries in terms of ensuring that there is no conflict among the trading blocks and they also have improved and revised communication facilities for generating international trading.

Controlling export subsidies

Export Subsidies also gets controlled by the rules and regulations of WTO as the organisation makes sure that domestic markets are encouraged to export goods and discouraged to sell goods in their market through a low-cost loan, direct payment and tax relief. It is the role of the WTO that ensures the effective control of export subsidies.

Improving national welfare and competitiveness of developing countries

The agreement developed by WTO indicates special provisions for developing countries such as longer period of implementation and agreement, increased trading opportunity, handling disputes, obtaining technical standards and much other welfare. Each of these aspects was essential for WTO to develop in developing countries so that they can gain national welfare and competitiveness of conducting trading with others.

Question 5 (11 marks)

Instruments of Trade Policy

  1. Evaluate the effects of an import tariff by the government of a small country. Explain in detail the effects of an import tariff on the economic welfare of the small country. (6 marks)


  1. Describe the potential advantages to the economy if the government offers an export subsidy (5 marks)


Effect of Import Traffic over small country

After the implementation of specific traffic by a small country like Vatican City, it increases the country’s domestic price based on the full value of the traffic. Traffic raises the price in the importing country and also decreases the surplus of consumers, and increases the surplus of producers (Crowe, 2021, p. 23). The increasing amount of price over domestic goods reduces consumer surplus and makes it difficult for keeping the customer base. The application of traffic over small countries like Vatican City increases the prices for improving its goods. The country is known for its production of agriculture, food staff and manufactured goods. Therefore, when traffic increases the price of the goods that the small country is producing, it eventually forces the domestic producer of the small country to reduce the price for increasing competition. Therefore, in the end, the domestic consumer ends up paying a higher price over the product that they are buying domestically. In this context, import traffic mainly generates negative effects over a small country and makes it highly difficult for the country to manage its consumers and economic growth.

A potential advantage of an economy based on export subsidy offering

Export subsidy mainly lowers the terms of trade for a larger country and decreases the surplus of consumers by increasing the surplus of producers. It mainly reduces the terms of trade by lowering the price of exports in world markets. However, there are some advantages related to export subsidies if the government of a country offers it to implement in its trading fasciitis. Export subsidy mainly leads the movement in the exchange rate that eventually compensates for the price distortion by leaving the equilibrium of the allocation unaffected (Lind and Pescatori, 2017, p. 2, pp. 2). Therefore, the application of export subsidies by the government of a country increases the market share of the domestic market among foreign countries that eventually generate better profit. Moreover, it is also going to be beneficial for the countrys economy as it will be reducing the cost of production based on lower usage of resources and it will be helping in improving the competitive advantage of that countrys trading abilities. It also holds the advantage of lowering the price paid in the importing countries which generally increases the economic advantage of the country whose government has implemented it in this regard.

Question 6

(11 marks)

Different market structures

Assume you are graduating from Holmes Institute and that you want to begin a business in Australia. You are aware that there are four different market structures and that some structures are hostile to new products and services. You decide upon Australia as a location for an Asian fast-food theme restaurant because you have expertise in that sector and you believe that it will be popular. You have also considered the four market structures: perfect, monopolistic, oligopoly and monopoly competition. You decide on one of the structures.


  1. Describe each of the four market structures and explain how each one may be conducive to starting your new Asian themed small business. (8 marks)


  1. Suppose you start your business within a monopolistic market structure. How is that structure advantageous to your proposed business and how would it affect the future growth of your business? (3 mark)



The four market structures are perfect, monopoly, monopolistic and oligopoly, for example, monopoly is the market has only one firm that gives a scope to this restaurant to be a single seller selling a unique product in the Australian Food market. This type of market structure would make this business relieved from any competition as this restaurant would be the sole seller of Asian Traditional Foods with no close substitute in the respective market.

However, oligopoly is the market structure, where only a few firms exist (Crowe, 2021, p. 9). It is also beneficial because in this market there would be a small number of firms operating in the same industry and even this business and other firms would not keep each other from having significant influence.

Furthermore, monopolistic is the market structure that is based on an imperfectly competitive marketing environment assuming that every firm can differentiate their competitor’s products, known as product differentiation. Furthermore, in this market, every firm ignores the effects that changes in their prices would have on the prices, which the competitors set, even though every firm faces the same competition and behaves as if they are monopolistic. Here, this market would offer scope to the respective business selecting an output at which the marginal revenue, an increase in their revenues from selling additional products and services, equal marginal costs with the cost of production of additional services exist. This business can differentiate its products and services from the other restaurants of Australia. This market structure gives a clear picture to the restaurant when they can enter the industry or can exit the industry, whenever the number of firms seems to be greater or even less than the equilibrium number then the firm has an incentive to enter or exit the industry (Crowe, 2021, p.5). For example, if this restaurant has an incentive for entering the industry whenever their revenues would exceed all the costs and for exiting the industry whenever revenues are less than all the costs.

However, perfect competition reflects that all income from production is paid to the owners of the factors of production that is no monopoly or excess profits exist. Since, in a perfectly competitive market, a companys value is determined by replacing the costs of their capital stocks, a drop in their capital goods price leads to a drop of their firms value (Garlappi and Song, 2017, p.3, pp. 2). In this market, the proposed business would be having perfect knowledge about the market, there is no information failure and knowledge gets shared between every participant operating in this market. There are no barriers to entering, thus the existing restaurant business of the same market cannot drive any monopoly power. Unlike imperfectly competitive markets, this firm would not be dominated by any existing firms as happens in imperfect competition generating excess profits and monopoly profits (Crowe, 2021, p.12).


Participating in the monopolistic market structure, the respective business can easily differentiate its products from the products of its competitor, with no need for the USP concept to be applied in this context. In addition, product differentiation with internal economies of scale can lead this business to trade between Australia and NZ or Australia and India, where no comparative advantage differences would exist between these two nations. Thus, trading could be an opportunity that this business would be availing in the monopolistic market. This business can easily raise the prices of its products and services somewhat above its competitor’s products because of the advantage of product differentiation. However, this business needs to compete with other firms having prices, which are believed for being uninfluenced by every firm’s actions. Thus, in future, this company would be having opportunities to increase its market size, expand its business operations, increases its product range, and many others because the respective market would allow this business for gaining profits from trade through a lower cost with price along with through a wider range of consumer choices. In addition, this business in future can engage in the intra-industry trade as well (Crowe, 2021, p.45). As a result of getting involved in trade, the company can increase its market size, where trade would help this business for decreasing the average cost in the industry driven by a monopolistic market. Thus, getting involved in trade would increase the product varieties, which the Australian consumer could buy under this market structure; as a result, it would increase the welfare of the Australian consumers. Hence, under this market structure, the respective business can build an effective and long-lasting relationship with the Australian consumers ensuring the success rate of this business in future in the Australian food & beverage sector.

Reference List

Alvarez-Cuadrado, F., Amodio, F. and Poschke, M., 2019. Selection and absolute advantage in farming and entrepreneurship: microeconomic evidence and macroeconomic implications.

Crowe, J., 2021. HI5016: International Trade and Enterprise Lecture 3.

Crowe, J., 2021. HI5016: International Trade and Enterprise, Lecture 10: James Crowe From GATT to WTO.

Crowe, J., 2021. HI5016: International Trade and Enterprise, Lecture 9: James Crowe (The instruments of trade policy).

Crowe, J., 2021. Summary: International Trade and Enterprise Lecture 12.

Crowe, J., 2021.Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition and International Trade Lecture 6.

Crowe, J., 2021.Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition and International Trade Lecture 7.

Crowe, J., 2021.International Trade and Enterprise Lecture 2.

Crowe, J., 2021.Standard Trade Model: International Trade and Enterprise Lecture 5.

Garlappi, L. and Song, Z., 2017. Capital utilization, market power, and the pricing of investment shocks.Journal of Financial Economics,126(3), pp.447-470.

Gupta, R., Gozgor, G., Kaya, H. and Demir, E., 2019. Effects of geopolitical risks on trade flows: evidence from the gravity model.Eurasian Economic Review,9(4), pp.515-530.

Herbert, E.B., 2020. The role of world trade organisation in international trade and investment. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence, 11(1), pp.47-55.

Lind, J. and Pescatori, M.A., 2017. The macroeconomic effects of trade tariffs: Revisiting the lerner symmetry result. International Monetary Fund.

U.S Department of State. 2020.U.S. Relations With Canada. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 16 June 2021].




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