Importance of Pain Assessment and Management

Title: The Importance of Pain Assessment and Management for Quality Improvement: A Nurses perspective


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Part A

Title: Importance of Pain Assessment and Pain Management for Quality Improvement: A Nurses perspective

A brief background and significance of the topic

Pain is usually classified as chronic or acute, and pain at the same time is common to be diagnosed at some point in life, where almost everyone experiences some type of pain. However, it is observed that acute pain with diagnostic and surgical procedures remains inadequately assessed and managed for many patients. In addition, inadequately managed pain leads to severe psychological and physical patient outcomes for an individual patient and his/her family. This topic is significant because pain assessment seems to be crucial if pain management needs to be effective. A nurse is in a unique position for assessing pain as she has the most contact with the patient and their respective family in the hospital. Furthermore, this topic is also significant enough because this topic gives scope to focus on various effective tools that could be used for an effective pain assessment led by effective pain management. In order to deliver improved quality to a patient, both pain assessment and pain management play an important role.

Research Question

RQ: How do pain assessment and pain management from a nurse’s perspective contribute to increasing the quality of services and delivery?

PICO (Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes)

P: Population would be the nurses only, who have some experience regarding the relationship between improved/improper quality and pain management along with pain assessment

I: Effective and efficient tools and techniques for pain assessment to be followed pain assessment documentation

C: Cause of Pain, post-operative and anxiety need to be controlled

O: Patient’s satisfactory level after pain assessment and pain management needs to be of high

Database search

MEDLINE: Role of a nurse in pain assessment, NCBI, adequate number of articles is not found

Cochrane: Tools for pain management, Systematic Reviews, Relevant no. of articles are found

Scopus: Pain Management improves quality, Peer-Reviewed (Elsevier), Only books are found


Research Methodology

In order to accomplish the respective study effectively, the suitable research methodology is the primary method. This methodology directs the researcher for conducting a “qualitative methodology involving suitable participants, nurses. However, secondary research methodology is applicable in this study, where secondary sources with databases are explored. Literature review seems to comparatively more relevant as a research method (2).

Research Design

Qualitative descriptive design is the most-suited research design for the respective research study. It moves beyond the literal description of the gathered data and further attempts for interpreting the findings without moving a bit far from than literal description (3). The findings obtained from this research study could usually be of significant relevance to the researcher or practitioner.


The most suitable participants for conducting this research study would be the nurses, who throughout their nursing experiences might get involved in such practices that reveal a longitudinal relationship between quality and effective pain management with pain assessment. Thus, a total of six nurses of any Australian hospital is to be asked to indulge in this research study. Here, the sampling method is a simple random sampling technique.

Inclusion and Exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteria and research objective with question guide the extraction and presentation of data (4). Inclusion criteria include clinical experience, qualification, knowledge, and age of the nurse, and exclusion criteria include schedule, unwillingness, and non-English speaking.

Data collection method

In order to collect the data from the respective participants of this research, the researcher selects a qualitative data collection method under primary research, in which the researcher conducts an interview session with six nurses. In addition, the researcher utilizes the secondary data as well to have a theoretical perspective on the respective topic, for which various databases are explored. Participant interviewing seems to be a frequent data-collection method in the grounded theory (1). Furthermore, interviewing those six nurses is taken place over the online platform through Zoom or Skype amid Covid19.

Data analysis method

Qualitative research, broadly, is generally employed for supporting a researcher in terms of generating in-depth and nuanced understanding regarding any given phenomenon (5). Here, the narrative analysis technique is the best-suited data analysis method that is listening to what the interviewee (nurses) share and says about their experience and knowledge.


Part B

Provide rationale for the selection of research methodology and research design

Since the researcher has selected primary qualitative research methodology followed by secondary research method, thus, the researcher gets a scope of providing a dual-perspective finding that is a practical perspective and theoretical perspective respectively. The reason behind selecting these research methods is to gain findings through words, images, and observations. Primary qualitative is selected because it gives a scope to the researcher for gaining practical and evidence-based data lively, which could establish a live interaction between the researcher and the participants. However, going for secondary research method as well is based on a reason reflecting the researcher would like to offer a theoretical or conceptual perspective of the same topic to its audience. The researcher wishes to get familiar with the data, which is to be extracted or collected from interviewing those nurses (sample), which directs the researcher to read the gathered data several times to get familiar with that.

The success of any research implementation in healthcare seems to be dependent on consumer/clinical behavioral change, and it seems to be critical, which implementation strategy includes the same (6). The researcher has opted for descriptive research design since this as compared to other research designs is relatively quick, pocket-friendly, and easy to conduct. Since the researcher aims at identifying the trends of using Pain Management and Pain assessment by the hospitals, therefore, a descriptive design could be an appropriate choice. Furthermore, the researcher is not much known yet about the related topic, thus the selected design seems to be useful enough to the researcher, it would give in-depth and new insight into the relationship between improved quality and pain management with its assessment. With this research design, the researcher could get a huge difference in the exposures between different areas as compared to the individual level; hence the gathered data are examined easily.

Identification and justification of sampling criteria

After identifying the sampling criteria, a few factors have been considered by the researcher to be used for indulging a nurse as a participant of this research and a few more factors or aspects have been considered to exclude any nurse from this research. In addition to the inclusion criteria, the researcher considers a nurse’s age, experience, qualification, and knowledge. These four factors would help the researcher to get the expected data from a nurse, if a nurse is having more than five years of experience, then the nurse would participate into this interview, as the nurse would definitely participate in using pain management tools and pain assessment documentation. Thus, utilization of these two on a patient would either satisfy the patient or deliver a problematic situation to that patient. Hence, including an experienced nurse would help the researcher to meet the research question. However, qualification, knowledge also matter because if the nurse’s qualification and knowledge is of higher-level, then the nurse would easily differentiate between an effective pain management tool’s use and an ineffective use of pain management or unproductive pain assessment documentation. Exclusion criteria such as non-English spoken because it is an interview process, thus speaking with clarity by a nurse would only help the researcher to get the expected outcomes. If any nurse will not wish to get indulged, the researcher cannot force that nurse, it will hamper the ethical consideration of the overall research.

The significance for the projects purpose reflects that an effective relationship between pain management and pain assessment and improved quality could be established. Thus, patients visiting hospital with a problem of acute pain could satisfactorily go back to their home, which means that patients pain assessment and pain management would be carried out effectively. The major motive of this study is to detect whether current pain management and pain assessment deliver an improved quality and satisfactorily to its patients, if not then how this could be achieved further.

In-person interviewing is one of the conventional modes of survey administration commonly used by a recreation researcher (7). In relation to this research, the data would be collected through applying primary qualitative method, which would lead the researcher to organize an interview session. Thus, calling or asking the nurses of various hospitals to participate in this interview session would lead the researcher to make the participants filling a consent form. Since, currently, Covid19 has adversely hit the entire world, and its effects restrict the people to physically meet with other people, thus amid Covid19, the researcher found an Interview Session would be the most appropriate mode of data collection. Furthermore, in-person interviewing would also contribute to develop this research in a pocket-friendly manner as online interview would cost the least.

Provide rational for selecting the data analysis method

The rational to select Narrative Technique as the most suitable data analysis technique reflects that the researcher could interestingly interpret the voice of the nurses as narrative technique is a kind of story-telling. Nurses would help the researcher by telling stories to help organizing and making sense of their professionalism, storied accounts, and what the researcher expects from them as well. Depending on the actual type of qualitative data-analysts indulged, the total duration of time being required in order for collecting, then transcribing, and finally organizing the data might be extensive (8). However, in this context, since it is qualitative data analysis, the researcher expects to have in-depth, evidence-based, and practical data irrespective of its length, although, the most time-consuming step following a qualitative research is the data analysis. In addition, the researcher is expected to obtain a large amount of data with the data having intense depth, which leads the researcher getting clear, transparent, accurate, reliable, and only valid information from the participants. Narrative interview refers to a means of collecting the stories that a person has about their illness and health experiences, and seems to be useful when it comes to understand the individuals life paths (9). Hence, the researcher would utilize narrative as a data analysis technique because with this analysis technique, the researcher could collect the nurses work experience based on the use of pain management and pain assessment documentation and its link with quality control, however, the approach of delivering answers to the researcher by the nurses would be like story-telling. Thus, the researcher, as a result, could keep their interests in analysing the lengthy and time-consuming data. This technique is appropriate enough here because it would allows the researcher for seeing how the nurses impose their order on environment and experience through commenting upon their relationship between work experience and their actions through stories.


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