HLS 571 International Module 2 Law Discussion

Discussion Assignment Response (3 TOTAL)

Discussion Requirements

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A substantive comment should be approximately 300 words or more for each of the responses (3 TOTAL).


Read the initial comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.


Before writing your comments:


Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.

Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:

Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.html


NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources.


Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.


Third post for each module discussion:


Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.


Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.










Classmates and Professor,


Cyber Policies: Government and Private Cooperation


Today, information technology (IT) has improved communication, economies, and business activities globally. However, the rapid advancement in information technology has created new cybersecurity challenges among private firms and governments. Therefore, the U.S. National Security Strategy has been developed to combat cybercrime, protect crucial infrastructure, and secure government networks.


Setting Cybersecurity Policies



Creating an effective national security strategy requires a collaborative strategy between private organizations and the government. The Federal government should engage state and local governments and private organizations in setting highly efficient cybersecurity policies (Kurtz, 2015). The collaborative strategy facilitates the delineation of stakeholders’ responsibilities and roles for cybersecurity. For instance, the Federal government must collaborate with local and state governments in defending and protecting the nation. Supporting cybersecurity policies allows these government levels to maximize the welfare and safety of citizens within their jurisdictions. For instance, government levels monitor security practices implementation among business organizations and agencies (The White House, 2014). The governments enact policies that allow private organizations to share cybersecurity information with other stakeholders freely. The governments also allocate funds to cybersecurity programs and protect critical infrastructures within their jurisdictions. On the other hand, private organizations design, construct and operate different network structures that support personal and public users.


Current U.S. Cybersecurity Policies Implementation



The United States Federal government has played an active role in enacting cybersecurity policies in the 21st Century. For instance, President Obama continuously criticized Chinese government espionage and hacking into the Federal government’s information systems. Obama also participated in the enactment of cybersecurity policies aimed at protecting citizens and critical infrastructure. Obama received tremendous support from the U.S. Congress in his cybersecurity endeavors. For instance, the U.S. Congress enacted The National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act and the Protecting Cyber Networks Act between 2015 and 2016 (Richards, 2015). The Senate also passed the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act in 2015 to promote collaboration between private organizations and government agencies in cyberattacks investigation programs.


Numerous states in the nation enacted numerous policies to improve cybersecurity at their administrative levels. For instance, more than 35 states considered over 265 bills regarding cybersecurity in 2018 (NCSL, 2019). The major objectives of these legislations were improving security practices and funding cybersecurity initiatives. The policies further aimed at restricting sensitive government information disclosure to the public. Legislations were further designed to promote workforce training on cybersecurity strategies. For instance, Arizona enacted the cybersecurity legislation in 2018 to support the Federal government in combating cybersecurity threat. In the same year, Georgia enacted legislation that criminalized unauthorized computer networks and computer access.



In conclusion, information technology development has created new securing challenges for private companies and governments. Hence, governments should collaborate with private organizations in the cybersecurity policies creation and implementation processes. Different policies enacted since 2015 have enabled U.S. federal and state governments to protect citizens, businesses, and critical infrastructure.






Kurtz, P. (2015). Congress wants companies facing cyber attacks to share data, and it’s not a moment too soon. Quartz Media. https://qz.com/407215/congress-wants-companies-fac…


NCSL. (2019). Cybersecurity Legislation 2018. National Conference of State Legislatures. https://www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunications-a…


Richards , W. H. (2015). Congressional action on cybersecurity would send strong message to China. The Hill. https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/technology…


The White House. (2014). Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure. Washington D.C.: United States Executive Office of the President. https://fas.org/irp/eprint/cyber-review.pdf






Good Afternoon Professor and Classmates,


The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA), signed into law by President Obama on December 18, 2015, enables businesses to share cyber threat information with the federal government and establishes as process for federal agencies to receive this threat information. By doing so, the forensics from these attacks can be analyzed by experts in hopes of determining the origin of the attack. Additionally, provisions within the law enable the sharing of unclassified intelligence information with other non-federal entities to prevent similar attacks against other businesses (Obama, 2015). Opponents to it, such as Apple and Reddit, argue the law will infringe on the privacy of online users (Jontz, 2015).


In addition to the passage of CISA, several other cybersecurity laws have been recently passed. The Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014 bolsters the partnership between public and private research and development of cybersecurity initiatives. The Federal Exchange Data Breach Notification Act of 2015 requires healthcare agencies to notify an individual if there is evidence to suggest their personal information was compromised because of a cyberattack or data breach. The National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015 amends the provisions from the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to include the National Cyber Security and Communications Integration Center, tribal governments, and non-governmental organizations (Singh, 2018).


Currently, there is ongoing legislation for the passage of the Cyber Diplomacy Act of 2021. One of the provisions of the bill will be to create an Office of International Cyberspace Policy within the State Department, giving the department the leverage to advocate for international cyber diplomacy (Brumfield, 2021).






Brumfield, C. (2021, February 25). Cyber Diplomacy Act aims to elevate America’s global cybersecurity standing. Retrieved from CSO: https://www.csoonline.com/article/3609518/cyber-di…


Jontz, S. (2015, October 27). Senate Overwhelmingly Passes Controversial Cybersecurity Bill, Angering Opponents. Retrieved from AFCEA: https://www.afcea.org/content/?q=Article-senate-ov…


Obama, P. B. (2015, December 15). Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015. Retrieved from CYBERSECURITY & INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY: https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publicati…


Singh, H. (2018, January 7). A Glance At The United States Cyber Security Laws. Retrieved from Appknox: https://www.appknox.com/blog/united-states-cyber-s…






Good evening class!


What should be the government and private roles in setting policies for cybersecurity?


The government and private sector must and do work together to address cyber threats and policies to address them. Information sharing has been beneficial in cyber intelligence for both the government and private sector. Levite et al. (2018) suggests that the private sector is struggling with the increased scope, scale, and complexity of risks presented by cyber threats to corporations’ finances, reputation, and properties (Executive Summary, para. 1). Due to this struggle, some private sector organizations have turned to cyber insurance policies as corporations resist intrusive government regulation other interventions (Levite et al., 2018, para. 23). With the experience of all involved, a partnership between the cyber threat insurance companies, private sector community, and the government would help with mitigating efforts being developed to prevent successful cyber-attacks.


What is the current status of U.S. policy for cyber and what is currently being considered by the President and Congress?


There is currently legislation in the works that is being introduced by members of Congress named the Cyber Diplomacy Act of 2021. The bill is designed to promote American international leadership on cybersecurity and establishes an Office of International Cyberspace Policy within the State Department (Brumfield, 2021, para. 1 & 3).






Brumfield, C. (February 25, 2021). Cyber Diplomacy Act aims to elevate America’s Global cybersecurity standing. Retrieved from https://www.csoonline.com/article/3609518/cyber-diplomacy-act-aims-to-elevate-americas-global-cybersecurity-standing.html


Levite, A.E., Kannry, S., & Hoffman, W. (November 7, 2018). Addressing the Private Sector Cybersecurity Predicament: The Indispensable Role of Insurance. Retrieved from https://carnegieendowment.org/2018/11/07/addressing-private-sector-cybersecurity-predicament-indispensable-role-of-insurance-pub-77622






Professor and Classmates,


The government and private sectors my have established polies for cybersecurity to protect their employees and their customers. Personal Identity Information may become easily accessible with some employers and the executives must protect their team. Policies and regulations must be established and every employee must read and sign an agreement acknowledging that cyber crimes is in violation of the law and will be prosecuted if found guilty. Personal information may not only be someone’s social security number, but financial records and other private information. On the flip side, policies need to be established to avoid damage to critical infrastructure. The Chief Information Officers Council Stated “Our Nation’s security and economic prosperity depend on the stability and integrity of our Federal communications and information infrastructure. Threats to cyberspace pose some of the most serious challenges of the 21st century for the United States. The President has made strengthening the Nation’s cybersecurity a priority from the outset of this Administration (CIO.gov, 2020).”


Furthermore, President Donald Trump signed the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Act of 2018 into law. The landmark legislation increases the mission set of the National Protection and Programs Directorate within the Department of Homeland Security. The initiative also established the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency which build the national capacity to defend cyber attacks (Department of Homeland Security, 2021). The reason for the President and Congress to act is the following policy of Section 1636:




(a) IN GENERAL.—It shall be the policy of the United States, with respect to matters pertaining to cyberspace, cybersecurity, and cyber warfare, that the United States should employ all instruments of national power, including the use of offensive cyber capabilities, to deter if possible, and respond to when necessary, all cyber attacks or other malicious cyber activities of foreign powers that target United States interests with the intent to—


(1) cause casualties among United States persons or persons of United States allies;


(2) significantly disrupt the normal functioning of United States democratic society or government (including attacks against critical infrastructure that could damage systems used to provide key services to the public or government);(3) threaten the command and control of the Armed Forces, the freedom of maneuver of the Armed Forces, or the industrial base or other infrastructure on which the United States Armed Forces rely to defend United States interests and commitments; or(4) achieve an effect, whether individually or in aggregate, comparable to an armed attack or imperil a vital interest of the United States (McCain, 2019).”-David Schible






Chief Information Officers . (2021). Policies & Priorities. Policies & Priorities | CIO.GOV. Retrieved on March 3, 2021, from https://www.cio.gov/policies-and-priorities/cybersecurity/.


Department of Homeland Security. (2021, March 1). Cybersecurity. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 3, 2021, from https://www.dhs.gov/topic/cybersecurity.


McCain, J. (2019). FY2019 NDAA: Policy of the United States on Cyberspace, Cybersecurity, Cyber Warfare, and Cyber Deterrence. Retrieved on March 3, 2021, from https://fas.org/sgp/news/2018/07/ndaa-1636.html

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