Consociation Democracy Theory
The Dutch scientist Arend Lijphart first developed the consociationalism theory. He explains that with the integration of political stability in most countries in Europe, social and subcultural segmentation has reduced significantly, making most of the majority groups embrace conflict resolution (Lijphart, 2000). The theory further insists that the formation of new consociation democracies is the way to ensure consensus democracy and to have stable multi-ethnic and multicultural cultures. Consociationalism plays a significant role in ensuring that countries possess stable democracies that view each society member as equal. With this equality given to the people, there will be no conflict between people of different colours. There is no propaganda to fuel hate among different pillars of the community.
For this power-sharing theory to fully work, it needs four pillars which are; Proportionality, mutual veto, grand coalition and segmented autonomy. In consociationalism, the higher committees consist of both nationalists and unionists. The winner party in the elections will elect the first minister, while the other party with fewer votes will choose the Deputy First minister, both of which have equal powers. They both will have to make joint decisions for the public.
This theory supports cooperation rather than the competition between the parties and different groups within the country, which is meant to stabilize the community. Through giving a platform to the minorities of the community to share authorship in how they want to be governed, the violence between the different groups will be highly decreased. The puzzle of a stable democracy is ” Stability is fostered by the absence of conflict in society, and thus by social and cultural homogeneity” (Andeweg, 2000). This homogeneity is needed to reduce conflict among different groups. However, as the pluralist theory suggests, some heterogeneity is needed to ensure collective unity. This happens through cross-cutting cleavage, where groups can agree on some matters but disagree on others. When cross-cutting happens between groups, it prevents that one group has all the dominance, nor does the other from having the weaker voice. Thus, this will create a more stable democracy within the country.
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