Concepts maps on Neurologic and Fluid-Electrolyte

Concepts maps on Neurologic, Fluid-Electrolyte and Acid-Base, and Immune.

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The body’s immune system comprises special organs, chemicals and cells that fight infections, which contribute to sickness. The main parts that comprise the immune system include the lymphatic system, spleen, white blood cells, thymus, antibodies, and the complement system. The immune system functions as the brain because it keeps a record of the previous infection that it has fought; thus, once the same microbe gets in the body, the response will be quick to stop the microbes from spreading further in the body. For instance, systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects the body by attacking a healthy cell which can affect the brain, skin, kidneys, and other body organs. The disease causes inflammation because the immune system is against its tissues. Currently, there is no cure for lupus but the treatment is focused on improving the quality of life by minimizing the flare-ups and symptoms, the process begins with the adjustment of lifestyle management like diet and protection from the sun. many different factors have been linked with genes, environment, immunoregulatory, ethnic factors, and epigenetic (Story, 2017). Lupus can affect people of all ages and sexes but the majority who represent the diseases are women in the childbearing stage. Clinical manifestations indicate that lupus affects different parts of the body; thus, the clinical features and organ involvement are renal, pulmonary, cardiac and vascular manifestations, constitutional and arthritis. Lab tests are conducted because the physicians want to establish the medical history of the patient and confirm the diagnosis. After all, the lupus symptoms sometimes mimic those of other diseases. Patients suffering from lupus exhibit a strong positive test thus the use of Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. The disease is characterized by loss of self-tolerance because of the activation of autoreactive T and B cells that lead to the overproduction of autoantibodies that cause tissue injury (Story, 2017).

Electrolytes are minerals in the body that contribute to electric body charge and they are mostly found in the urine, tissues, blood and other body fluids. Electrolytes play a significant role in the body because they contribute to balance in the amount of water, acid/base PH levels, movements of wasted and nutrients into and out of cells and ensure that the heart, muscles, nerves and the brain work the way they are supposed to do. When the levels of electrolytes are too high or low, it is as a result of the changes in the amount of water in the body that brings the changes. Water intake should be the same as the rate of its loss. When balance is upset, dehydration occurs and more water intake results in overhydration. Other factors like diarrhoea, sweating, vomiting, some medicines, kidney or liver problems can affect water balance in the body (In Chintamani & In Mani, 2018). Treatment helps the body to manage the imbalance and it involves treating the cause of the imbalance. For example, respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs are unable to remove the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the body. The excess carbon dioxide produced in the body makes the PH of the bodily fluids decrease making them acidic. The cause of the condition is typical because of an underlying disease that causes respiratory failure. To determine whether one is affected by this condition, a blood gas measurement test is conducted to measure the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. High carbon dioxide levels in the body show the presence of acidosis. Electrolyte testing is normally done by measuring the levels of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, calcium, and chloride. Sometimes a chest X-ray can be done to help the doctors to identify the extent of the injuries that the condition might have caused in the body. The condition affects individuals who expose themselves to too much alcohol consumption without eating. Respiratory acidosis occurs as a result of the failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide causing arterial partial pressure and a decreased ratio of bicarbonate in the artery leading to a decline in blood PH (In Chintamani & In Mani, M. (2018). The condition can because or chronic causing signs like drowsiness, headaches, confusions, myoclonic jerks and tremor. Diagnosis should be done clinically with tests done on the arterial blood gas and serum electrolyte measurements.

Neurologic Dz Exemplars are presentations of how the prototype and exemplar contribute to quantitive models. Neuroimaging supports this model and further evidence indicates that there is an overlap between the neural systems that support recognition and categorization. Intracranial regulation involves both the abnormal and normal processes for the brain to function effectively. The process has to integrate the brain and the central nervous system for the intracranial to compensate and adapt to its neurological function to take place. The neurotransmitters and neurons must work efficiently through adequate oxygen, glucose, and blood to the body parts. Intracranial regulation is related to the cognitive functions of the body such as mobility and gas exchange. A medical professional should be able to identify the behaviors that show age-appropriate cognitive abilities. The negative outcomes related to intracranial regulation are cerebral oedema, brain tumors and intracranial pressure. For instance, seizure disorders cause nerve cell activity to be disturbed in the brain. Sometimes the seizure disorders may lead to epilepsy which is a genetic disorder that contributes to brain injuries such as stroke or injury. During a seizure attack, a person may experience loss of consciousness, fainting and fatigue, muscle spasms, memory loss, headaches, anxiety, and staring spells (Foundations of nursing: For the diploma, 2018). Seizures can be treated through surgery, or advice on diet changes or administered with nerve pain medications or anticonvulsants to help a patient overcome the seizures. Tests can be conducted through a neurological exam by the doctor to examine the behavior, mental function, motor mobilities and maybe determine the kind of seizures that could be affecting the patient. Also, blood tests can be conducted to check the signs and symptoms that the genetic disorder may have contributed to or other conditions contributed by the seizures. The commonly conducted test is the EEG to detect any brain abnormalities. Anybody can be affected by the disorder because it is mostly genetically contributed.



In Chintamani & In Mani, M. (2018).Lewis’s Medical-Surgical Nursing, Third South Asia

Edition – E-Book: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems

Foundations of nursing: For the diploma. (2018).

Story, L. (2017).Pathophysiology: A practical approach.


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