In the cost of capital is too small to meaningfully affect real investment decisions. We empirically corroborate these small estimates by studying firm changes in ESG status. When firms are either included or excluded from the leading socially conscious US index (FTSE USA 4Good) we find no detectable effect on the cost of capital. We conclude that current ESG divesture strategies have had little impact and will likely have little impact in the future. Our results suggest that to have impact, instead of divesting, socially conscious investors should invest and exercise their rights of control to change corporate policy.
Impact investing aims to reduce social and environmental costs in society through investment choice. Divestment is an important tool investors employ to achieve this goal. Broadly defined, divestment is the idea that when investors refuse to invest in companies that impose social and environmental costs, society benefits. As plausible as this argument appears to be at first blush, it is missing the mechanism linking investor action and the effect on society. What is not clear is how divestment affects corporate strategy. Why would investors choice to divest achieve the stated goal of reducing social costs in
society? When an investor chooses to sell a stock like a tobacco stock, she necessarily sells it to another investor. Since this transaction simply exchanges one investor for another, it
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